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  • blastocyst-stage
  • The efficiency of ES cell isolation was significantly increased by culturing murine blastocyst-stage embryos which had been induced experimentally, to enter a period of implantational delay for five days. (bl.uk)
  • Such a tetraploid embryo can develop normally to the blastocyst stage and will implant in the wall of the uterus. (wikipedia.org)
  • ectoderm
  • Here, a study describes the isolation of pluripotent ES cell lines from the primitive ectoderm of day 5.5 p.c. egg cylinder-stage mouse embroys. (bl.uk)
  • Oct4
  • At the transcription level, the transcription factors Oct4, Nanog, Cdx2, and Tead4 have all been implicated in establishing and reinforcing the specification of the ICM and the TE in early mouse embryos. (wikipedia.org)
  • isolation
  • The brief exposure of day 3.5 p.c. embryos from the 129/Sv- CP mouse strain to treatments expected to perturb gene expression, heat shock or puromycin-containing medium, significantly increased the frequency of ES cell isolation. (bl.uk)
  • Even though there is evidence that corroborates a hemangioblast, the isolation and exact location in the embryo has been difficult to pinpoint. (wikipedia.org)
  • gene expression
  • Mapping of the major transcription initiation site of Nanog paves the way towards identification of the factor(s) that direct Nanog gene expression and thus determine the pluripotent state. (springer.com)
  • Although temporal patterns of phenotypic gene expression have been relatively well characterized during the course of differentiation, coincident patterns of endogenous extracellular matrix (ECM) and growth factor expression that accompany pluripotent stem cell differentiation remain much less well-defined. (jove.com)
  • In addition, systems analysis of ECM and growth factor gene expression alone identified intracellular molecules and signaling pathways involved in the progression of pluripotent stem cell differentiation that were not contained within the array data set. (jove.com)
  • There is also interspecies variation in gene expression patterns in early embryos The ICM and the TE will generate distinctly different cell types as implantation starts and embryogenesis continues. (wikipedia.org)
  • Developmental biology and embryology provides the basic knowledge of the cell types' differentiation through mutation analysis, lineage tracing, embryo micro-manipulation and gene expression studies. (wikipedia.org)
  • Cell type may be determined according to several criteria: location in the developing embryo, gene expression as indicated by protein and nucleic acid markers and surface antigens, and also position on the embryogenic tree. (wikipedia.org)
  • fate
  • Overall, these studies represent a novel framework to dissect the complex, dynamic nature of the extracellular biochemical milieu of stem cell microenvironments that regulate pluripotent cell fate decisions and morphogenesis. (jove.com)
  • Embryonic Research Rossant's research in cell reprogramming has built a foundation for proteomic stem cell resources, and given researchers new methods to understand the mechanisms that regulate cell fate specification. (wikipedia.org)
  • induce
  • In 1982, McBurney and Rogers transplanted a 7.5 day mouse embryo into the testis to induce tumor growth. (wikipedia.org)
  • Developmental
  • X inactivation is an early developmental process in mammalian females that transcriptionally silences one of the pair of X chromosomes, thus providing dosage equivalence between males and females (see dosage compensation). (wikipedia.org)
  • In genetics and developmental biology, somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) is a laboratory strategy for creating a viable embryo from a body cell and an egg cell. (wikipedia.org)
  • adult
  • The earliest HSCs that are capable of reconstitution potential emerge at embryonic day (E) 10.5 in aorta-gonad-mesonephros (AGM) region, then later migrate to fetal liver, and finally settle in the future adult bone marrow and spleen. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Ian Wilmut and Keith Campbell were the first to demonstrate that an adult mammalian cell could be reprogrammed back into a pluripotent state when they cloned Dolly the sheep in 1997. (wikipedia.org)
  • An oocyte can reprogram an adult nucleus into an embryonic state after somatic cell nuclear transfer, so that a new organism can be developed from such cell. (wikipedia.org)
  • gastrulation
  • by the end of gastrulation, the embryo has begun differentiation to establish distinct cell lineages, set up the basic axes of the body (e.g. dorsal-ventral, anterior-posterior), and internalized one or more cell types including the prospective gut. (wikipedia.org)
  • embryogenesis
  • Demethylation of early embryogenesis occurs in the preimplantation period in two stages - initially in the zygote, then the first few embryonic replication cycles of morula and blastula. (wikipedia.org)
  • A study found that in the beginning stages of mouse embryogenesis, commencing at embryonic day 7.5, HPCs are produced close to the emerging vascular system. (wikipedia.org)