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  • Differentiation
  • Divided into four convenient sections, topics include a focus on producing iPSC from diverse somatic sources, media systems for expanding ESC and iPSC with detailed protocols for directed differentiation into specific lineages, commonly used cellular and molecular characterization methods, and the potential application of labeled stem cells with specific methods for cloning, gene delivery and cell engineering. (springer.com)
  • These adaptations at the vascular level form the basis for functional and phenotypic changes that include differentiation along mesenchymal and neurological lineages, and lend credence to the supposition that pericytes are multipotential stems cells in the adult brain and in other tissues. (eurekaselect.com)
  • Adult, embryonic and recently available induced pluripotent stem cells not only foster our understanding of differentiation of endo-, ecto- and mesodermal lineages to all organs of the body, but foremost nourish the hope that cells grown in culture can be used for regeneration of diseased organs such as the heart damaged by myocardial infarction. (springer.com)
  • In progress toward our first aim, we have been able to enhance cardiac differentiation of mouse iPS cells by 20%, and have devised strategies to increase this success rate. (ca.gov)
  • Toward this goal we have established genome-wide reference maps of DNA methylation and gene expression for 20 previously derived human ES lines and 12 human iPS cell lines, and we have measured the in vitro differentiation propensity of these cell lines. (nih.gov)
  • This resource enabled us to assess the epigenetic and transcriptional similarity of ES and iPS cells and to predict the differentiation efficiency of individual cell lines. (nih.gov)
  • This suggests that such conditioned medium might contain a growth factor that stimulates the proliferation or inhibits the differentiation of normal pluripotent embryonic cells, or both. (pnas.org)
  • They need to find out how much differentiation these cells require before they become helpful in specific areas of the body. (scientificamerican.com)
  • Scaffolds alone or coated with collagen types I or IV or fibronectin were assessed independently for their ability to support attachment, proliferation, and differentiation of primary cell lines including human bladder smooth muscle cells (SMC) and urothelial cells as well as pluripotent cell populations, such as murine embryonic stem cells (ESC) and induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells. (plos.org)
  • Prominent expression of epithelial differentiation markers, cytokeratins, was observed in urothelial cells cultured on both control and fibronectin-coated groups following IHC analysis. (plos.org)
  • In addition, real time RT-PCR and IHC analyses showed that fibronectin-coated Group 2 scaffolds facilitated ESC and iPS cell differentiation toward both urothelial and smooth muscle lineages in response to all trans retinoic acid as assessed by induction of uroplakin and contractile gene and protein expression. (plos.org)
  • Here, we report the directed differentiation of CHX10 + V2a interneurons from human pluripotent stem cells (hPSCs). (pnas.org)
  • Recent studies revealed changes in the expression and genomic distributions of H1 variants during cell differentiation which appear to contribute to phenotypic differences between cell types, but the functional significance of phosphorylation at specific sites in individual H1 variants and their dynamic regulation in this process has not been investigated. (illinois.edu)
  • Here we show that the global levels of phosphorylation of H1.5-Ser18 (pS18-H1.5), H1.2/H1.5-Ser173 (pS173-H1.2/5) and H1.4-Ser187 (pS187-H1.4) are regulated differentially during pluripotent cell differentiation. (illinois.edu)
  • Notably, the levels of pS187-H1.4 enrichment after actinomycin D treatment or cell differentiation reflect the extent of CDK9 recruitment at the same loci. (illinois.edu)
  • Taken together, our data provide strong evidence that H1 variant phosphorylations are dynamically regulated in a site-specific and gene-specific fashion during pluripotent cell differentiation, and that the enrichment of pS187-H1.4 at genes is positively related to their transcription. (illinois.edu)
  • This chapter reviews embryonic stem cell (ESC) and induced pluripotent stem cell (iPSC) models of disease, including published differentiation paradigms for neurons and their associated phenotypes, as well as current challenges to the field such as validation of the PSCs and PSC-derived cells. (springer.com)
  • Compared to st-MSCs, ps-MSCs appear less mature, proliferate faster, express lower levels of inflammatory cytokines, and respond less to traditional protocols for st-MSC differentiation to other cell types, especially adipocytes. (nih.gov)
  • neurons
  • Single-cell RNAseq analysis confirmed CHX10 + cells within the differentiated population, which consisted primarily of neurons with some glial and neural progenitor cells. (pnas.org)
  • Writing in tomorrow's Science, they describe how they reprogrammed skin cells from elderly ALS patients, turning them into pluripotent stem cells that they then coaxed to form motor neurons, the very cells that degenerate in this disease. (alzforum.org)
  • Traditionally, HD cellular models consisted of either patient cells not affected by disease or rodent neurons expressing expanded polyQ repeats in HTT. (springer.com)
  • hESCs
  • The finding sheds new light upon the fundamental biology of hESCs - with their huge potential as a diverse therapeutic tool - but also suggests a new target for attacking cancer stem cells, which likely rely upon the same receptor and pathway to help spur their rampant, unwanted growth. (ucsd.edu)
  • If we block FZD7 function, thus interfering with the WNT pathway, hESCs exit their undifferentiated and pluripotent state. (ucsd.edu)
  • If so, said Willert, disrupting FZD7 function in cancer cells is likely to interfere with their development and growth just as it does in hESCs. (ucsd.edu)
  • progenitor cells
  • Neural progenitor cells (NPC) derived from congenital Zika syndrome (CZS) affected and non-affected twins show different rates of virus infection and different RNA expression of genes associated with neural development. (medicalxpress.com)
  • SCNT
  • Gurdon used a technique known as somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT), in which the nucleus of a somatic cell is transferred into the cytoplasm of an enucleated egg (an egg that has had its nucleus removed). (britannica.com)
  • The experiments with SCNT were crucial to the eventual production of iPS cells. (britannica.com)
  • The promise of the SCNT method is that the nucleus of a patient's skin cell, for example, could be used to create pluripotent cells that might be able to repair a part of that patient's body. (healthcanal.com)
  • One attraction of SCNT has always been that the genetic identity of the new pluripotent cell would be the same as the patient's, since the transplanted nucleus carries the patient's DNA," said cardiothoracic surgeon Sonja Schrepfer , MD, PhD, a co-senior author of the study, published online Nov. 20 in Cell Stem Cell . (healthcanal.com)
  • A dozen years ago, when Irving Weissman , MD, professor of pathology and of developmental biology at Stanford, headed a National Academies panel on SCNT cells, he raised the possibility that the immune system of a patient who received the cells might still react against proteins from the cells' mitochondria, which act as the energy factories for the cell and have their own DNA. (healthcanal.com)
  • When transplanted back into the nucleus donor strain, the cells were rejected although there were only two single nucleotide substitutions in the mitochondrial DNA of these SCNT-derived cells compared to that of the nucleus donor. (healthcanal.com)
  • immunological
  • Fate Therapeutics is utilizing its novel platform to engineer the immunological properties of pluripotent cells, creating a continual source for the generation of engineered T- and NK-cell immunotherapeutics. (cnbc.com)
  • Lineage
  • thus, they allow tracing the history from the root to individual branches of the cell lineage tree. (hindawi.com)
  • Neural
  • The spinal cord consists of multiple neuronal cell types that are critical to motor control and arise from distinct progenitor domains in the developing neural tube. (pnas.org)
  • Signaling pathways (retinoic acid, sonic hedgehog, and Notch) that pattern the neural tube were sequentially perturbed to identify an optimized combination of small molecules that yielded ∼25% CHX10 + cells in four hPSC lines. (pnas.org)
  • reprogram
  • So, is it possible to reprogram a differentiated cell so that it reverts back to a stem cell? (howstuffworks.com)
  • Among the first to discover that possibility was British developmental biologist John B. Gurdon , who in the late 1950s had shown in frogs that egg cells are able to reprogram differentiated cell nuclei. (britannica.com)
  • The minicircle reprogramming vector works so well because it comprises only the four genes needed to reprogram the cells plus a gene for a green fluorescent protein (GFP) to track minicircle-containing cells, the team explains. (genengnews.com)
  • We know that these fat cells are multipotent, which should [make it] easier to reprogram them,' Wu says. (scientificamerican.com)
  • expression
  • oct4-EGFP reporter gene expression marks the stem cells in embryonic development and in adult gonads of transgenic medaka," Molecular Reproduction and Development , vol. 80, no. 1, pp. 48-58, 2013. (hindawi.com)
  • Nonetheless, retroviral delivery remains highly effective, and technical advances to prevent the integration of retroviral material into the nuclear genome have allowed for the generation of iPS cells via ectopic expression (in the cytoplasm) of retrovirus-delivered transcription factors. (britannica.com)
  • Adaptation
  • Furthermore, the existence of variant cells creates an essential substrate for in vitro selection whereby mutations that endow cells with improved growth outcompete their normal counterparts and overtake the culture-a phenomenon termed culture adaptation (Baker et al. (springer.com)
  • therapeutic
  • Its adoptive cell therapy candidates are based on the Company's novel ex vivo cell programming approach, which it applies to modulate the therapeutic function and direct the fate of immune cells. (cnbc.com)
  • This release contains "forward-looking statements" within the meaning of the Private Securities Litigation Reform Act of 1995, including statements regarding the breadth and strength of the Company's intellectual property portfolio, the therapeutic potential of programmed cellular immunotherapeutics, and the Company's plans and ability to develop programmed cellular immunotherapeutics, including off-the-shelf NK- and T-cell-based cancer immunotherapeutics derived from induced pluripotent cells. (cnbc.com)
  • Finally, because they don't replicate they are naturally lost as the cells divide, rather than hanging around to potentially muck up any subsequent therapeutic applications. (genengnews.com)
  • Lines
  • Delegates will leave the module with practical knowledge to propagate, maintain and characterize feeder and feeder-free stem cell lines. (ucl.ac.uk)
  • However, substantial variation has been reported among pluripotent cell lines, which could affect their utility and clinical safety. (nih.gov)
  • Stem cells: Scorecards for pluripotent cell lines. (nih.gov)
  • The availability of such cell lines should made possible new approaches to the study of early mammalian development. (pnas.org)
  • Cultures
  • Over time, CHX10 + cells expressed neuronal markers [neurofilament, NeuN, and vesicular glutamate transporter 2 (VGlut2)], and cultures exhibited increased action potential frequency. (pnas.org)
  • potential
  • A Swedish research team has published a new protocol with the potential for industrial-scale production of the brain helper cells known as astrocytes. (medicalxpress.com)
  • Specially programmed stem cells demonstrated the potential to regenerate lost muscle mass in muscular dystrophy, according to a Northwestern Medicine study published in Nature Communications. (medicalxpress.com)
  • The compositions described in the patent are foundational to the generation of induced pluripotent cells, which are a source of cells offering unique potential for off-the-shelf adoptive immunotherapy. (cnbc.com)
  • Supported by an intellectual property portfolio of over 30 issued patents and 60 pending applications, we believe we are uniquely positioned to develop and deliver on the potential for off-the-shelf cell-based cancer immunotherapies utilizing our proprietary pluripotent cell platform as an alternative approach to patient-sourced cells. (cnbc.com)
  • One significant hope rests on the potential of pluripotent stem cells, which can become nearly any kind of cell in the body. (healthcanal.com)
  • Each liter of fat promises hundreds of millions of potential cells, Longaker estimates. (scientificamerican.com)
  • The ultimate safety of the cells, especially regarding their potential to spark cancer , will also need to be examined in more detail, notes Yasuhiro Ikeda , an assistant professor of molecular medicine at the Mayo Clinic's College of Medicine, in Rochester, Minn., who wasn't involved in the work. (scientificamerican.com)
  • This cell - the fertilised egg that is totipotent - has the potential to create an entire organism. (explorestemcells.co.uk)
  • primitive
  • Of key importance are the transcription factors Oct-4 (octamer 4) and Sox-2 (sex-determining region Y box 2), which maintain stem cells in a primitive state. (britannica.com)
  • Laboratory
  • It will also provide managers with insights into the intricacies of cell culture and the necessary laboratory infrastructure requirements. (ucl.ac.uk)
  • When they isolated the GFP-expressing cells and grew them in a laboratory dish, they observed that the minicircles were gradually lost over a period of four weeks. (genengnews.com)
  • Schrepfer, who heads the Transplant and Stem Cell Immunobiology Laboratory in Hamburg, used cells that were created by transferring the nuclei of adult mouse cells into enucleated eggs cells from genetically different mice. (healthcanal.com)
  • A slither of laboratory-made retinal cells has protected her eyesight, fighting her age-related macular degeneration - a common form of progressive blindness. (newscientist.com)
  • Masayo Takahashi at the RIKEN Laboratory for Retinal Regeneration in Kobe, Japan, and her team took skin cells from the woman and turned them into iPS cells. (newscientist.com)
  • Generation
  • The factors controlling the process were unknown, however, until Yamanaka published his first report describing iPS cell generation. (britannica.com)