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  • embryonic stem cell
  • In 2011, scientists at the New York Stem Cell Foundation announced that they had succeeded in generating embryonic stem cell lines, but their process involved leaving the oocyte 's nucleus in place, resulting in triploid cells, which would not be useful for cloning. (wikipedia.org)
  • Federal funding of research using existing embryonic stem cell lines is consistent with the President's belief in the fundamental value and sanctity of human life. (archives.gov)
  • Similarly, a "parthenote" (derived entirely from one parent) that does not have the potential to develop into a person might be a source of cell lines with potential comparable to that of embryonic stem cell lines. (yale.edu)
  • ethical
  • However, clinical application of stem cells raises numerous ethical and safety concerns. (medsci.org)
  • In this review, we provide an overview of the most important ethical issues in stem cell therapy, as a contribution to the controversial debate about their clinical usage in regenerative and transplantation medicine. (medsci.org)
  • This review offers stem cell scientists, clinicians and patient's useful information and could be used as a starting point for more in-depth analysis of ethical and safety issues related to clinical application of stem cells. (medsci.org)
  • We describe and discuss ethical challenges regarding human embryonic stem cell (hESC) research, therapeutic potential and clinical translation of induced pluripotent stem cell (iPSC) and safety issues of mesenchymal stem cell (MSC)-based therapy. (medsci.org)
  • Our hope is that stem cell scientists and clinicians will use the information presented herein as a starting point for more in-depth analysis of ethical and safety issues related to clinical translation of stem cells since controversial regulation and application of stem cell therapy has been falsely celebrated not only in countries with lax medical regulations but also in many developed countries. (medsci.org)
  • Human cloning has moved closer to reality, and even therapeutic cloning is fraught with ethical perils. (washingtontimes.com)
  • Since the first fertilization of a human egg in the laboratory in 1968, scientific and technological breakthroughs have raised ethical dilemmas and generated policy controversies on both sides of the Atlantic. (scribd.com)
  • Over time, he argues, partisan debate and religious-secular polarization have come to overshadow ethical reflection and political deliberation on the moral status of the embryo and the promise of biomedical research. (scribd.com)
  • I believe that the moral status of the embryo and the promise of biomedical research to reduce human suffering are critical and complex ethical issues. (scribd.com)
  • These ethical concerns have prompted several nations to pass laws regarding human cloning and its legality. (wikipedia.org)
  • Regulatory issues are addressed in discussions of the ethical debate surrounding the derivation of human embryonic stem cells and the current policies governing their use in the United States and abroad, including the rules and conditions regulating federal funding and questions of intellectual property. (springer.com)
  • While the principal source of the controversy surrounding HESC research lies in competing views about the value of human embryonic life, the scope of ethical issues in HESC research is broader than the question of the ethics of destroying human embryos. (stanford.edu)
  • Technical and financial hurdles add to ethical and safety concerns over embryonic stems cells while adult stem cells are achieving remarkable clinic successes. (i-sis.org.uk)
  • ISIS had already pointed out at the time that research on hES cells was ethically unjustifiable, especially given that adult stem cells, easily obtainable from the patients themselves (see Box 1), appeared just as developmentally flexible as ES cells, and showed much greater promise in the clinic without either the ethical concerns or the risks of cancer from hES cells [2- (i-sis.org.uk)
  • Upon this base of activities and relationships, GPI serves as a communications channel, helping to build the knowledge base needed for ethical and thoughtful policy-making in support of scientifically and medically worthy research and clinical translation in the broad field of stem cells and the even broader field of developmental biology. (nih.gov)
  • Here we want to emphasize a common theme that runs through this letter: the concept that the Final Guidelines should be regarded as a safe harbor , not as the only set of procedures by which applicants for NIH funding can establish that the derivation of hESCs proposed for use in research can meet the ethical requirements embodied in the Draft Guidelines. (nih.gov)
  • In order to ensure that federal funds are used to support only stem cell research that is scientifically sound, legal, and ethical, the NIH will examine the derivation of all existing stem cell lines and create a registry of those lines that satisfy this criteria. (archives.gov)
  • By using this technique, we could establish pluripotent cell lines easily and circumvent ethical problems. (omicsonline.org)
  • As scientists continue to advance techniques in cloning technologies, we have seen an increase in the number of ethical debates on the future of cloning. (harvardsciencereview.com)
  • While employing "stressed" body cells (e.g., mammary gland cells from an adult, such as those used to clone Dolly the sheep) has no ethical overtones (when used in non-human cloning procedures), the use of certain human stem cells does. (apologeticspress.org)
  • tissue
  • The term is generally used to refer to artificial human cloning, which is the reproduction of human cells and tissue . (wikipedia.org)
  • Transfer of Fetal Cells with Multilineage Potential to Maternal Tissue' (2004), by Kiarash Khosrotehrani et al. (asu.edu)
  • The results were published in Transfer of Fetal Cells with Multilineage Potential to Maternal Tissue. (asu.edu)
  • Adult stem cells are unspecialized, can renew themselves, and can become specialized to yield all of the cell types of the tissue from which they originate. (archives.gov)
  • Although scientists believe that some adult stem cells from one tissue can develop into cells of another tissue, no adult stem cell has been shown in culture to be pluripotent. (archives.gov)
  • These results support that piPS/hrGFP+ cells can be generated from pEF by direct reprogramming, and these traceable piPS/hrGFP+ cells would be beneficial for future application on cell transplantation and tissue regeneration. (omicsonline.org)
  • Here, we used tissue ablation in the chicken embryo to demonstrate that the caudal presomitic mesoderm (PSM) has a key role in axis elongation. (biomedsearch.com)
  • However, differences between ES cells and primitive ectoderm cells have caused developmental biologists to question whether ES cells really have an in vivo equivalent, or whether their properties merely reflect their tissue culture environment. (biologists.org)
  • However, this term was never adopted, and the extent to which these pluripotent stem cell lines represent any specific embryonic cell type or reflect their artificial tissue culture environment is still an open issue today - two decades later. (biologists.org)
  • The uniqueness of tissue engineering is that it can restore normal structure in addition to repairing tissue function, and is often accomplished using stem cells. (asu.edu)
  • The first type of tissue engineering using stem cells was hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT), a surgical procedure in which hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) are infused into a host to treat a variety of blood diseases, cancers, and immunodeficiencies. (asu.edu)
  • genetic
  • Results obtained from completed and on-going clinical studies indicate huge therapeutic potential of stem cell-based therapy in the treatment of degenerative, autoimmune and genetic disorders. (medsci.org)
  • Nobel Prize-winning geneticist Joshua Lederberg advocated cloning and genetic engineering in an article in The American Naturalist in 1966 and again, the following year, in The Washington Post . (wikipedia.org)
  • Bell also wrote much of the five volume Treasury of Human Inheritance, a collection about genetics and genetic disorders. (asu.edu)
  • A stem cell line is a mass of cells descended from the original, sharing its genetic characteristics. (archives.gov)
  • Because few studies exist to describe the unique molecular network regulation behind pig pre-implantation embryonic development (PED), genetic engineering in the pig embryo is limited. (biomedcentral.com)
  • And, fourth, techniques for repairing any intrinsic disease-causing genetic defects and transplantation of the repaired, differentiated cells into the patient. (stembook.org)
  • 2006 ), or by using ES cell lines established from embryos following preimplantation genetic diagnosis (Eiges et al. (stembook.org)
  • Up to this point in history, all that scientists knew was that within the nucleus of a cell there was genetic information, and this nucleus was bathed within the surrounding fluid in the cell, known as the cytoplasm. (harvardsciencereview.com)
  • Briggs and King hypothesized that a differentiated cell nucleus that has undergone irreversible genetic changes should have a decreased potential to develop into other cell types, since it would be lacking the genetic information needed to differentiate into all the cells of the body of an animal. (harvardsciencereview.com)
  • Many scientists shared this hypothesis, as well as the idea that some factors within the cytoplasm cause irreversible changes to the genetic material in the nuclei of cells. (harvardsciencereview.com)
  • scientists
  • Yesterday, scientists in South Korea announced - through publication in the Journal Science Express - the first successful cloning of a human embryo, and the subsequent derivation of a line of stem cells from that clone. (washingtontimes.com)
  • To produce the cloned embryos, scientists used somatic nuclear transfer, a technique long used to create animal clones. (washingtontimes.com)
  • Instead, the scientists developed the embryos to the point at which they contained pluripotent stem cells that could be isolated. (washingtontimes.com)
  • Although the possibility of cloning humans had been the subject of speculation for much of the 20th century, scientists and policy makers began to take the prospect seriously in the mid-1960s. (wikipedia.org)
  • Many nations outlawed it, while a few scientists promised to make a clone within the next few years. (wikipedia.org)
  • Scientists recently succeeded in converting adult human skin cells into cells that appear to have the properties of HESCs by activating four genes in the adult cells (Takahashi et al . (stanford.edu)
  • In the United States, scientists at the Harvard Stem Cell Institute,the University of California San Francisco, Stemagen (La Jolla, CA) and possibly Advanced Cell Technology are currently researching a technique to use somatic cell nuclear transfer to produce embryonic stem cells. (bootstrike.com)
  • Federal funding of medical research on these existing stem cell lines will promote the sanctity of life " without undermining it " and will allow scientists to explore the potential of this research to benefit the lives of millions of people who suffer from life destroying diseases. (archives.gov)
  • Cloning" is an umbrella term traditionally used by scientists to describe different processes for duplicating biological material. (nhmrc.gov.au)
  • Although a simple idea, scientists and physicians have struggled for more than 50 years to understand how we can manipulate our cells in order to replace or regenerate our bodies. (harvardsciencereview.com)
  • donor cell
  • The birth of 'Dolly', the first mammal cloned from an adult donor cell, has sparked a flurry of research activities to improve cloning technology and to understand the underlying mechanism of epigenetic reprogramming of the transferred somatic cell nucleus. (bioscientifica.com)
  • This involves an erasure of the gene expression program of the respective donor cell and the establishment of the well-orchestrated sequence of expression of an estimated number of 10 000-12 000 genes regulating embryonic and foetal development. (bioscientifica.com)
  • in practice usually the whole donor cell is transferred. (bootstrike.com)
  • organism
  • After many mitotic divisions in culture, this single cell forms a blastocyst (an early stage embryo with about 100 cells) with almost identical DNA to the original organism. (bootstrike.com)
  • The aim of carrying out this procedure is to obtain stem cells that are genetically matched to the donor organism. (bootstrike.com)
  • For example, the African clawed frog (Xenopus laevis) is the most widely used organism to study gastrulation because the large embryos develop inside a translucent membrane. (asu.edu)
  • Mice
  • Therefore, single BTMs from two- and four-cell embryos of outbred mice were individually placed in sequential cultures to enhance the formation of the inner cell mass (ICM) and the establishment of embryonic outgrowth. (biomedsearch.com)
  • However, we demonstrated the feasibility of establishing ES cells from a single BTM of outbred mice. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Because their growth is sustained by the persistent EC cell component ( Stevens and Little, 1954 ), teratocarcinomas can be serially transplanted between mice. (biologists.org)
  • As mice embryos develop, they undergo a stage of development called gastrulation. (asu.edu)
  • R&D systems, Cytokine bulletin 2007: TGF-beta Superfamily Signaling in ES cells (Mice are Not Men) p. 1-3. (patentgenius.com)
  • Research
  • As a consequence, several countries have prohibited human cloning but are racing forward with stem cell research. (washingtontimes.com)
  • Two years ago, the Australian government decided to allow human embryos existing in fertility clinics to be used in stem cell research. (washingtontimes.com)
  • This past December, a Japanese government panel recommended allowing limited stem-cell research on human embryos. (washingtontimes.com)
  • U.S. studies have gone at a slower pace, a consequence of President Bush's decision to limit federal funding of stem-cell research to a small number of lines. (washingtontimes.com)
  • Those issues are examined in some detail in the recently issued report of the President's Council on Bioethics, "Monitoring Stem Cell Research," available at www.bioethics.gov. (washingtontimes.com)
  • In Embryo Politics , Thomas Banchoff provides a comprehensive overview of political struggles aboutembryo research during four decades in four countries-the United States, the United Kingdom, Germany, and France. (scribd.com)
  • Embryo research is one of the few political issues with no historical precedent. (scribd.com)
  • Although there is great interest in the potential for using stem cells as cell replacements and other treatments for diseases that currently have no cure, research on the biology of human embryonic stem cells is still in its infancy. (springer.com)
  • In 1913 Franklin P. Mall, Professor of Anatomy at Johns Hopkins Medical School, applied for a Carnegie grant to support his research with human embryos. (asu.edu)
  • Human embryonic stem cell (HESC) research offers much hope for alleviating the human suffering brought on by the ravages of disease and injury. (stanford.edu)
  • Opponents of HESC research argue that the research is morally impermissible because it involves the unjust killing of innocent human beings. (stanford.edu)
  • If looked at from a strictly consequentialist perspective, it's almost certainly the case that the potential health benefits from the research outweigh the loss of embryos involved and whatever suffering results from that loss for persons who want to protect embryos. (stanford.edu)
  • However, most of those who oppose the research argue that the constraints against killing innocent persons to promote social utility apply to human embryos. (stanford.edu)
  • Thus, as long as we accept non-consequentialist constraints on killing persons, those supporting HESC research must respond to the claim that those constraints apply to human embryos. (stanford.edu)
  • The standard view of those who oppose HESC research is that a human being begins to exist with the emergence of the one-cell zygote at fertilization. (stanford.edu)
  • The first human embryonic stem (hES) cell bank was officially opened in the UK in May 2004 , with Health Minister Lord Warner saying, "This potentially revolutionary research could benefit thousands of patients. (i-sis.org.uk)
  • The centre contains just two stem cell lines developed by research teams at King s College London and the Centre for Life in Newcastle. (i-sis.org.uk)
  • Research and clinical findings since have borne out all our objections to ES cells, as well as the promises of adult stem cells. (i-sis.org.uk)
  • There is simply no case for supporting research in hES cells any longer. (i-sis.org.uk)
  • GPI is a not-for-profit organization formed in 2003 with the mission of promoting and defending stem cell research and its application in medicine to develop therapeutics and cures for many otherwise intractable diseases and disorders. (nih.gov)
  • GPI congratulates NIH on its tireless efforts over the past 35 years to achieve a position of global leadership in the field of human embryology through both extramurally funded and intramurally conducted human embryonic stem cell ( hESC ) and related medical research. (nih.gov)
  • In the United Kingdom, the Human Fertilisation and Embryology Authority has granted permission to research groups at the Roslin Institute and the Newcastle Centre for Life. (bootstrike.com)
  • Proposals to use nucleus transfer techniques in human stem cell research raise a set of concerns beyond the moral status of any created embryo. (bootstrike.com)
  • The President's decision reflects his fundamental commitment to preserving the value and sanctity of human life and his desire to promote vital medical research. (archives.gov)
  • The President's decision will permit federal funding of research using the more than 60 existing stem cell lines that have already been derived, but will not sanction or encourage the destruction of additional human embryos. (archives.gov)
  • More than 60 existing stem cell lines from genetically diverse populations around the world are expected to be available for federally-funded research. (archives.gov)
  • The potential of embryonic stem cell research. (archives.gov)
  • To create embryonic stem cells for research, a "stem cell line" must be created from the inner cell mass of a week-old embryo. (archives.gov)
  • The pig, a common livestock species, has the potential to serve as a great research model for human biomedicine, and has been considered an optimal model for preclinical development of therapeutic approaches because the organ size, immunology, and whole animal physiology are similar to human [ 3 - 5 ]. (omicsonline.org)
  • The NHMRC Embryo Research Licensing Committee (NHMRC Licensing Committee) developed this discussion paper in response to a request from the Council of the NHMRC for a definition of 'human embryo' from a purely biological standpoint. (nhmrc.gov.au)
  • The definition proposed in this paper was subsequently adopted by the Australian Parliament in the Prohibition of Human Cloning for Reproduction and Regulation of Human Embryo Research Amendment Act 2006 to replace the previously used definition. (nhmrc.gov.au)
  • Much of the hope invested in embryonic stem (ES) cell research surrounds its promise to provide a broad spectrum of medical applications. (stembook.org)
  • These promising advances stand in stark contrast to the earlier revelation that reports of highly efficient derivation of several new human ESC lines through research cloning by South Korean researchers were false. (yale.edu)
  • Nevertheless, it remains clear that clever and innovative efforts to generate pluripotent stem cells through research cloning as well as through alternative methods continue unabated. (yale.edu)
  • Address correspondence to: K. John McLaughlin, Center for Molecular and Human Genetics, The Research Institute at Nationwide Children's Hospital, 700 Children's Drive, Columbus, Ohio 43205, USA. (jci.org)
  • easily obtainable
  • Another source of easily obtainable stem cells is umbilical cord cells, which have been routinely isolated from the umbilical cord of the newborn for transplant therapy, and has made headlines in successfully treating a woman paralysed for 19 years (see " Cord blood stem cells mend spinal injury ", this series). (i-sis.org.uk)
  • Here, easily obtainable differentiated cells may be genetically manipulated to revert the cell to a stem cell state, from which clinically desirable cell types can be derived. (yale.edu)
  • destruction
  • National governments make rules that govern the creation, destruction, and use of embryos in the laboratory-but they do so in profoundly different ways. (scribd.com)
  • researchers
  • Had it been the latter (a technique almost universally condemned as unethical), the researchers could have attempted to initiate a pregnancy by implanting the cloned embryos in a womb. (washingtontimes.com)
  • The United Kingdom, with some of the world's most liberal laws on the subject, has established a Stem Cell Bank, from which researchers can withdraw adult, fetal and embryonic stem cells. (washingtontimes.com)
  • The researchers extracted the egg cell from the ovary of the domestic cow and the skin cell from the skin of the gaur. (asu.edu)
  • First, the researchers performed nuclear transplantation on the egg cell of the cow, during which they removed the nucleus of the egg cell. (asu.edu)
  • In 2000 ACT researchers in the United States cloned a gaur (Bos gaurus), an Asian ox with a then declining wild population. (asu.edu)
  • The researchers used cryopreserved gaur skin cells combined with an embryo of a domestic cow (Bos taurus). (asu.edu)
  • However, most researchers believe that in the foreseeable future it will not be possible to use this technique to produce a human clone that will develop to term. (bootstrike.com)
  • Ironically, this is what was proven to be the origin of the so-called "cloned" human embryonic stem (ES) cell lines claimed by South Korean researchers in 2005. (yale.edu)
  • In late 1999, the IVF procedure was carried out, and in early October of 2000, as Time reported, researchers working at the Fairview University Hospital in Minneapolis, Minnesota, successfully transferred the stem cells from the newborn's (his name is Adam) umbilical cord to Molly. (apologeticspress.org)
  • nucleus
  • The following article reviews the present knowledge on the epigenetic reprogramming of the transferred somatic cell nucleus, with emphasis on DNA methylation, imprinting, X-chromosome inactivation and telomere length restoration in bovine development. (bioscientifica.com)
  • In this case, each embryo was created by taking a nucleus from a skin cell (donated by Wood and a colleague) and inserting it into a human egg from which the nucleus had been removed. (wikipedia.org)
  • This involves transferring the nucleus of a cell of an adult (such as the patient requiring transplant) to an unfertilised egg that has had its nucleus removed, which is then stimulated to develop into an embryo. (i-sis.org.uk)
  • At the same time, the nucleus of an egg cell is removed. (bootstrike.com)
  • The nucleus of the somatic cell is then inserted into the enucleated egg cell. (bootstrike.com)
  • After being inserted into the egg, the somatic cell nucleus is reprogrammed by the host cell. (bootstrike.com)
  • The egg, now containing the nucleus of a somatic cell, is stimulated with a shock and will begin to divide. (bootstrike.com)