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  • Injection
  • In addition, this approach is advantageous because transplanted cells are easily identified around the injection site even when they do not form tumors. (bio-protocol.org)
  • embryonic development
  • Brivanlou, a comparative embryologist who studies the basic molecular aspects of very early vertebrate embryonic development, studies embryonic stem cells to determine whether they truly possess the unique qualities with which they are credited. (innovations-report.com)
  • The RNA-binding proteins LIN28A and LIN28B play critical roles in embryonic development, tumorigenesis, and pluripotency, but their exact functions are poorly understood. (nih.gov)
  • Additionally, although EBs largely exhibit heterogeneous patterns of differentiated cell types, ESCs are capable of responding to similar cues that direct embryonic development. (wikipedia.org)
  • signaling pathway
  • It works like this: a newly purified compound from the purple dye of marine red mollusks - called 6-bromoindirubin-3'-oxime, or by its working acronym, "BIO"- has been shown by Rockefeller scientists to indirectly activate a crucial gene expression mechanism, called the Wnt signaling pathway, in embryonic cells. (innovations-report.com)
  • Investigations from ES cell-enriched miRNAs, such as mouse miR-290 cluster and human miR-302 cluster, and ES cell-depleted miRNAs such as let-7 family miRNAs, revealed a common theme that miRNAs target diverse cellular processes including cell cycle regulators, signaling pathway effectors, transcription factors, and epigenetic modifiers and shape their protein output. (wiley.com)
  • germ
  • Derivation of pluripotent stem cells from cultured human primordial germ cells," Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America , vol. 95, no. 23, pp. 13726-13731, 1998. (hindawi.com)
  • Pluripotent embryonic stem cells (ESCs) have the unique ability to differentiate into cells from all germ lineages, making them a potentially robust cell source for regenerative medicine therapies, but difficulties in predicting and controlling ESC differentiation currently limit the development of therapies and applications from such cells. (nih.gov)
  • Embryonic stem cells of the inner cell mass are pluripotent, that is, they are able to differentiate to generate primitive ectoderm, which ultimately differentiates during gastrulation into all derivatives of the three primary germ layers: ectoderm, endoderm, and mesoderm. (wikipedia.org)
  • Thus, the male germ cells undergoing meiosis are the specific cells in the testicles that express Rex1. (wikipedia.org)
  • It has not been observed, however, that Rex1 is expressed in the female germ cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Similar to ESCs cultured in monolayer formats, ESCs within embryoid bodies undergo differentiation and cell specification along the three germ lineages - endoderm, ectoderm, and mesoderm - which comprise all somatic cell types. (wikipedia.org)
  • The epiblast cells are the functional progenetors of soma and germ cells which later differentiate into 3 layers, definitive endoderm, mesoderm and ectoderm. (wikipedia.org)
  • Amniotic epithelial cells have the ability to develop into any of the three germ layers: endoderm, mesoderm, and ectoderm. (wikipedia.org)
  • The presence of embryonic and foetal cells from all germ layers in the amniotic fluid was gradually determined since the 1980s. (wikipedia.org)
  • In 2007, it was confirmed that the amniotic fluid contains a heterogeneous mixture of multipotent cells after it was demonstrated that they were able to differentiate into cells from all three germ layers but they could not form teratomas following implantation into immunodeficient mice. (wikipedia.org)
  • embryos
  • After proving the function of the enzyme in embryonic stem cells in mice, researchers inhibited the function of LOXL2 in zebra fish embryos to check in vivo if the consequences in the balance between pluripotency and cell differentiation. (healthcanal.com)
  • Isolating the embryoblast or inner cell mass (ICM) results in destruction of the blastocyst, which raises ethical issues, including whether or not embryos at the pre-implantation stage should be considered to have the same moral or legal status as embryos in the post-implantation stage of development. (wikipedia.org)
  • found that these teratocarcinoma stem cells, when in the presence of retinoic acid (RA), differentiated into nontumorigenic cells resembling extraembryonic endoderm of early mouse embryos. (wikipedia.org)
  • The stem cells are usually extracted from the amniotic sac by amniocentesis which occurs without harming the embryos. (wikipedia.org)
  • The use of amniotic fluid stem cells is therefore generally considered to lack the ethical problems associated with the use of cells from embryos. (wikipedia.org)
  • retinoic
  • Natural and synthetic analogs of retinol, called retinoids, have generally been associated with the cell differentiation via retinoic acid which is the most potent metabolite of retinol. (mdpi.com)
  • The studies have also revealed that stem cells do not contain enzymes that are responsible for metabolizing retinol into retinoic acid. (mdpi.com)
  • ectoderm
  • As the ICM matures and begins to form the epiblast, and primitive ectoderm, the cells in the ICM have been found to be a heterogenous population, with varying levels of Rex1 expression. (wikipedia.org)
  • Also, Rex1−/Oct3/4+ cells differentiate into cells of primitive ectoderm, the somatic cell lineage. (wikipedia.org)
  • multipotent cells
  • Identification of an intermediate state as spermatogonial stem cells reprogram to multipotent cells," Molecules and Cells , vol. 29, no. 5, pp. 519-526, 2010. (hindawi.com)
  • The term encompasses multipotent cells derived from other non-marrow tissues, such as placenta, umbilical cord blood, adipose tissue, adult muscle, corneal stroma or the dental pulp of deciduous baby teeth. (wikipedia.org)
  • pathways
  • There's growing evidence that there's a switch that turns on either differentiative or proliferative pathways in the cell, so it makes sense to think that a factor that promotes proliferation inhibits differentiation, however, that's not always the case, because the timing of the stimuli is important. (madsci.org)
  • Integrins provide essential links between the extracellular environment and the intracellular signalling pathways, which can play roles in cell behaviours such as apoptosis, differentiation, survival, and transcription. (wikipedia.org)
  • cellular
  • It's not known whether the initial stimuli that promotes cell division in one cellular context then promotes differentiation in combination with the other factors present in the later stages of tissue repair, or if it's cell-cell contact that promotes the differentiation, but this process does occur even in the presence of FGF, so FGF isn't working as a strong differentiation preventative agent in that context. (madsci.org)
  • Thus, the objective of this study was to use rules-based cellular modeling to provide insight into which processes influence initial cell fate transitions in 3-dimensional microenvironments. (nih.gov)
  • In combination with strategies to engineer cellular microenvironments, this type of modeling approach is a powerful tool to predict stem cell behavior under a number of culture conditions that emulate characteristics of 3D stem cell niches. (nih.gov)
  • Molecular and cellular biology portal Cell membrane Cell migration Immunological synapse Trogocytosis Cell Adhesion Molecules at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) Brackenbury R, Rutishauser U, Edelman GM (January 1981). (wikipedia.org)
  • These cells are called epiblast-derived stem cells (EpiSC) and have several different cellular and molecular characteristics with Embryonic Stem Cells (ESC) (De-Miguel et al. (wikipedia.org)
  • Because there is not a sufficient amount of amniotic epithelial cells extracted from a single term placenta to be use in cellular therapies, the cells must be expanded in a lab. (wikipedia.org)
  • One prospective use of these cells includes cellular therapies aimed at dropping inflammation and scarring. (wikipedia.org)
  • The protein encoded by this gene is a multifunctional, nuclear phosphoprotein that plays a role in cell cycle progression, apoptosis and cellular transformation. (wikipedia.org)
  • mESCs
  • A chemically defined thermoresponsive hydrogel, poly(AEtMA-Cl- co -DEAEA) cross-linked with N , N ′-methylenebisacrylamide, which allows enzyme-free passaging, was used as a substrate to culture murine embryonic stem cells (mESCs) under defined and undefined conditions. (rsc.org)
  • However, the role of Gas5 in other pluripotent stem cells (such as mouse ESCs (mESCs) and iPSCs) is still unknown. (springer.com)
  • Biology
  • Try the links in the MadSci Library for more information on Cell Biology . (madsci.org)
  • Long-term proliferation in culture and germline transmission of mouse male germline stem cells," Biology of Reproduction , vol. 69, no. 2, pp. 612-616, 2003. (hindawi.com)
  • This new function of retinol may have important implications for stem cell biology which can be exploited for quantitative production of pure population of pluripotent stem cells for regenerative medicine as well as clinical applications for cancer therapeutics. (mdpi.com)
  • Reprogramming of fibroblasts into induced pluripotent stem cells with orphan nuclear receptor Esrrb," Nature Cell Biology , vol. 11, no. 2, pp. 197-203, 2009. (hindawi.com)
  • Conversion of mouse fibroblasts into cardiomyocytes using a direct reprogramming strategy," Nature Cell Biology , vol. 13, no. 3, pp. 215-222, 2011. (hindawi.com)
  • The expression of FOXP1 was also implicated in the biology of B cell malignancies, and is regulated by non-coding RNA (miRNA) termed miR-150. (wikipedia.org)
  • vitro
  • In vitro , it's used because cells divide more readily when it's present, but as I mentioned, this doesn't necessarily mean that it's promoting the proliferative pathway over differentiation. (madsci.org)
  • In vitro reprogramming of fibroblasts into a pluripotent ES-cell-like state," Nature , vol. 448, no. 7151, pp. 318-324, 2007. (hindawi.com)
  • A common approach to induce the differentiation of ESCs in vitro is via the formation of multicellular aggregates known as embryoid bodies (EBs), yet cell fate specification within EBs is generally considered an ill-defined and poorly controlled process. (nih.gov)
  • If the pluripotent differentiation potential of embryonic stem cells could be harnessed in vitro, it might be a means of deriving cell or tissue types virtually to order. (wikipedia.org)
  • Other potential uses of embryonic stem cells include investigation of early human development, study of genetic disease and as in vitro systems for toxicology testing. (wikipedia.org)
  • molecular
  • The identification of the small molecule, pharmacological inhibitor system in stem cells, led by Ali Brivanlou, Ph.D., head of the laboratory of molecular vertebrate embryology and his research associate, Noburo Sato, Ph.D., so far demonstrates superior stability over other methods designed to circumvent the need for mouse feeder cells. (innovations-report.com)
  • According to the study published in the journal Molecular Cell, enzyme LOXL2 would be involved in maintaining the balance between the pluripotency and the differentiation in this type of cells that can turn into any cell in the body. (healthcanal.com)
  • A recent study suggested that SON may be a novel therapeutic molecular target for pancreatic cancer as the results of a recent study show that this protein is very important as far as proliferation, survival and tumorigenicity of cancer cells are concerned. (wikipedia.org)
  • regulators
  • page needed] Although there is a lack of knowledge about its exact splicing control in the progression of the cell cycle and it has remained largely unexplored, it's certain that this splicing-associated protein is necessary for the maintenance of the embryonic stem cells because it influences the splicing of pluripotency regulators. (wikipedia.org)
  • apoptosis
  • In response to the ECM deposition, EBs often form a cystic cavity, whereby the cells in contact with the basement membrane remain viable and those at the interior undergo apoptosis, resulting in a fluid-filled cavity surrounded by cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • When FOXO1 over expressed in human LNCaP prostate cancer cells, it caused apoptosis in these cancer cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Also, It is detected that FOXO1 regulateTNF-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL), which cause FOXO1-induced apoptosis in the human prostate cancer cell line LAPC4 when FOXO1 adenovirus-mediated overexpression was used. (wikipedia.org)
  • alkaline phosphatase
  • A series of related indicators were examined by cell counting kit-8 (CCK-8) assay, quantitative reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR), Western blot, alkaline phosphatase staining, propidium iodide (PI) staining, Annexin V staining, competition growth assay, immunofluorescence, and chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP)-qPCR. (springer.com)
  • qRT-PCR, fluorescence-activated cell sorting (FACS), alkaline phosphatase staining, and immunofluorescence were used to evaluate the role of Gas5 during mouse iPSC reprogramming. (springer.com)