Loading...
  • gene
  • The colicin B and M gene region was sequenced in 60 strains and it was found (with one exception) that all plasmids lacking an intact colicin B activity gene have an identical colicin gene structure, possessing a complete colicin B immunity gene and a 130 bp remnant of the B activity gene. (microbiologyresearch.org)
  • A phylogenetic analysis of the colicin M and B operons and characterization of the plasmids suggested that ColBM plasmids with a truncated B activity gene have evolved on at least three separate occasions. (microbiologyresearch.org)
  • The presence of a remnant of the microcin V operon next to the truncated colicin B activity gene indicated that these plasmids evolved as a consequence of gene transfer between colicin BM and microcin V plasmids. (microbiologyresearch.org)
  • family of plasmids
  • The IncP-1 plasmid group (IncP plasmids in Escherichia coli) of which RK2 is a part has been described as "highly potent, self-transmissible, selfish DNA molecules with a complicated regulatory circuit" RK 2 was first isolated in connection with an outbreak of antibotic-resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Klebsiella aerogenes in Birmingham in 1969, as one of a family of plasmids implicated in transfer of Ampicillin resistance between bacterial strains. (wikipedia.org)
  • linear plasmids
  • Extrachromosomal DNA exists in prokaryotes outside the nucleoid region as circular or linear plasmids. (wikipedia.org)
  • The linear plasmids of prokarykotes are found either containing a hairpin loop or a covalently bonded protein attached to the telomeric ends of the DNA molecule. (wikipedia.org)
  • The linear plasmids which contain a protein that has been covalently attached to the 5' end of the DNA strands are known as invertrons and can range in size from 9 kb to over 600 kb consisting of inverted terminal repeats. (wikipedia.org)
  • These types of linear plasmids represent the largest class of extrachromosomal DNA as they are not only present in certain bacterial cells, but all linear extrachromosomal DNA molecules found in eukaryotic cells also take on this invertron structure with a protein attached to the 5' end. (wikipedia.org)
  • Conjugative Plasmids
  • These experiments led to the genetic definition of two conjugative plasmids-SCP1 and SCP2-that were deduced to be present in an autonomous state in the wild-type A3(2) strain and to be lost, or in the case of SCP1 sometimes chromosomally integrated, in various of its derivatives. (springer.com)
  • strains
  • Plasmids responsible for "fertility" (or "chromosome mobilizing ability" [Cma]) (24) were also identified genetically in some other strains, including Streptomyces rimosus (18), Streptomyces lividans (29), Streptomyces erythreus (now called Saccharopolyspora erythrea ) (15), Streptomyces venezuelae (17), and Streptomyces ambofaciens (66). (springer.com)
  • I would very much like to acquire other strains , antibodies to these strains and any plasmids containing DNA from these strains. (bio.net)
  • Malgorzata Adamczyk and Grazyna Jagura-Burdzy: "Spread and survival of promiscuous IncP-1 plasmids", Acta Biochimica Polonica, Vol 50, no. 2/2003, p. 425-453 LEWIS C. INGRAM, M. H. RICHMOND, AND R. B. SYKES: "Molecular Characterization of the R Factors Implicated in the Carbenicillin Resistance of a Sequence of Pseudomonas aeruginosa Strains Isolated from Burns", ANTIMICROBIAL AGENTS AND CHEMOTHERAPY, Feb. 1973, p. 279-288 Thomas CM et al. (wikipedia.org)
  • Plasmid , in microbiology, an extrachromosomal genetic element that occurs in many bacterial strains. (britannica.com)
  • Escherichia
  • Members of Enterobacteriaceae family, for example, Escherichia coli or Klebsiella pneumoniae pose the biggest threat regarding plasmid-mediated resistance in hospital- and community-acquired infections. (wikipedia.org)
  • Experimental evidence has shown that in Escherichia coli, when levels of this RNA are decreased, the plasmid copy number of R1162 is increased. (wikipedia.org)
  • Gene
  • Plasmids are extremely valuable tools in the fields of molecular biology and genetics, specifically in the area of genetic engineering ( q.v. ). They play a critical role in such procedures as gene cloning, recombinant protein production ( e.g., of human insulin), and gene therapy research. (britannica.com)
  • A foreign DNA element (such as the gene for insulin) is then spliced into the plasmid. (britannica.com)
  • Plasmid welcomes topics such as horizontal gene transfer, including antibiotic resistance transfer, and molecular aspects of microbial ecology. (elsevier.com)
  • The protein product of this gene region, along with another protein, controls the copy number of the 8.75kB R1162 plasmid. (wikipedia.org)
  • The gene that was inserted into the plasmid was created by reverse transcription of the mRNA found in pituitary glands to complementary DNA. (wikipedia.org)
  • Plasmid DNA vaccines are genetically engineered to contain a gene which encodes for an antigen or a protein produced by a pathogenic virus, bacterium or other parasite. (wikipedia.org)
  • chromosome
  • Although the enzymes involved in DNA replication of plasmids are the same as those used for the chromosome, some plasmids are copied in a different way than the chromosome. (dummies.com)
  • A plasmid that is attached to the cell membrane or integrated into the bacterial chromosome is called an episome ( q.v. ). (britannica.com)
  • concentration
  • Is it possible to know plasmid DNA concentration without digestion? (bio.net)
  • RNA I serves as a major plasmid-encoded inhibitor of this process whose concentration is proportional to plasmid copy number. (wikipedia.org)
  • More RNA I is produced when the concentration of the plasmid is high, and high concentration of RNA I inhibits replication, resulting in regulation of copy number. (wikipedia.org)
  • The higher the concentration of the plasmid, the more CopA RNA is produced and the less RepA protein can be synthesized, increasing inhibition of plasmid replication. (wikipedia.org)
  • When the plasmid concentration is high, RepA plasmids bound to iterons form dimers in between two plasmids, "handcuffing" them at the origin of replication and inhibiting replication. (wikipedia.org)
  • regulation
  • Minimal plasmids such as PFF1 are useful for studying the basic mechanisms of plasmid replication and copy number regulation, as there are less superfluous genetic elements which might affect the processes being studied. (wikipedia.org)
  • J A Kornacki, C H Chang, and D H Figurski: "kil-kor regulon of promiscuous plasmid RK2: structure, products, and regulation of two operons that constitute the kilE locus. (wikipedia.org)
  • However, many of the plasmids that carry lactis-plasmid RNAs also carry ctRNA-pND324 RNAs, which are involved in plasmid copy count regulation. (wikipedia.org)
  • molecular
  • David Wessner reviews Vector NTI Suite, an INternet integrated software tool that can catalog, analyze, and design complex plasmids for molecular biologists. (sciencemag.org)
  • protein
  • Most plasmids require a plasmid-encoded protein, usually called Rep, to separate the strands of DNA at the origin of replication (oriV) to initiate DNA replication. (wikipedia.org)
  • The synthesis of Rep protein is controlled in order to limit plasmid replication and therefore regulate copy number. (wikipedia.org)
  • It is made from the first promoter until the plasmid reaches its copy number, upon which the protein CopB represses this primary promoter. (wikipedia.org)
  • RepA is the only plasmid-encoded protein required for replication in pSC101. (wikipedia.org)
  • coli
  • In E. coli, multiple plasmid copies appear to cluster together, creating a few multiplasmid clusters in each cell. (wikipedia.org)
  • Two such mutants, PFF1cop254D and PFF1cop271C, increase the copy number of PFF1 in E. coli from approximately 39-40 to about 501 and 113 plasmids per cell, respectively. (wikipedia.org)
  • The authors describe readily reproducible methods for cloning DNA into plasmid vectors, transforming plasmids into E. coli, and analyzing recombinant clones. (springer.com)
  • Comprehensive and highly practical, E. coli Plasmid Vectors offers those new to the field a basic guide to the use of plasmid vectors in the cloning host E. coli, and those more experienced researchers a broad-ranging, proven array of successful techniques. (springer.com)
  • fertility
  • Plasmids were first clearly implicated in this conjugative process in the most studied strain, Streptomyces coelicolor A3(2), when certain derivatives of the wild-type isolate were found to differ in their "fertility" properties-that is, in the frequency with which they generated chromosomal recombinants when mated with various other derivatives-and this ability was inherited "infectiously" (2, 28, 72). (springer.com)
  • Bibb, M. J., and Hopwood, D. A., 1981, Genetic studies of the fertility plasmid SCP2 and its SCP2' variants in Streptomyces coelicolor A3(2), J. Gen. Microbiol . (springer.com)
  • Transfection
  • Transfection with HGF plasmids in damaged cardiac tissue also promotes angiogenesis (increased capillary density compared to control subjects), as well as decreasing detrimental remodelling of the tissue at the site of injury (decreased fibrotic deposition). (wikipedia.org)
  • It is used to increase the transfection efficiency of RNA (including mRNA and siRNA) or plasmid DNA into in vitro cell cultures by lipofection. (wikipedia.org)
  • promoter
  • In ColE1 derived plasmids, replication is primarily regulated through a small plasmid-encoded RNA called RNA I. A single promoter initiates replication in ColE1: the RNA II promoter. (wikipedia.org)