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  • Neurons
  • Our results indicate that Ca2+ transport in undifferentiated PC12 cells is quite unlike transport in adrenal chromaffin cells, for which they often are considered models.Transport in both cell states more closely resembles that of sympathetic neurons, for which differentiated PC12 cells often are considered models.Comparison with other cell types shows that different cells emphasize different Ca2+ transport mechanisms. (nih.gov)
  • Transport in both cell states more closely resembles that of sympathetic neurons, for which differentiated PC12 cells often are considered models. (nih.gov)
  • In electrically excitable cells, such as skeletal and cardiac muscles and neurons, membrane depolarization leads to a Ca2+ transient with cytosolic Ca2+ concentration reaching 400 nM and above. (wikipedia.org)
  • citation needed] For neurons, the Na+ /K+ -ATPase can be responsible for up to 2/3 of the cell's energy expenditure. (wikipedia.org)
  • Preliminary evidence suggests that the dopamine transporter couples to L-type voltage-gated calcium channels (particularly Cav1.2 and Cav1.3), which are expressed in virtually all dopamine neurons. (wikipedia.org)
  • As a result of DAT-Cav coupling, DAT substrates that produce depolarizing currents through the transporter are able to open calcium channels that are coupled to the transporter, resulting in a calcium influx in dopamine neurons. (wikipedia.org)
  • depolarization
  • Transport in neurites of differentiated PC12 cells was qualitatively similar to that in the somata, except that the ER stores in neurites sometimes released Ca2+ instead of clearing it after depolarization. (nih.gov)
  • gradient
  • These studies have also shown that transport rate and direction is totally dependent on the sodium gradient. (wikipedia.org)
  • Because of the tight coupling of the membrane potential and the sodium gradient, activity-induced changes in membrane polarity can dramatically influence transport rates. (wikipedia.org)
  • There are two types of active transport - primary active transport that uses ATP, and secondary active transport that uses an electrochemical gradient. (wikipedia.org)
  • Unlike passive transport, which uses the kinetic energy and natural entropy of molecules moving down a gradient, active transport uses cellular energy to move them against a gradient, polar repulsion, or other resistance. (wikipedia.org)
  • Secondary active transport involves the use of an electrochemical gradient. (wikipedia.org)
  • Secondary active transport, however, makes use of potential energy, which is usually derived through exploitation of an electrochemical gradient. (wikipedia.org)
  • The energy created from one ion moving down its electrochemical gradient is used to power the transport of another ion moving against its electrochemical gradient. (wikipedia.org)