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  • bilayer
  • According to the accepted current theory, known as the fluid mosaic model , the plasma membrane is composed of a double layer ( bilayer ) of lipids, oily substances found in all cells (see Figure 1). (fsu.edu)
  • Since the 1970s, the plasma membrane has been frequently described as a fluid mosaic , which is reflective of the discovery that oftentimes the lipid molecules in the bilayer can move about in the plane of the membrane. (fsu.edu)
  • However, depending upon a number of factors, including the exact composition of the bilayer and temperature, plasma membranes can undergo phase transitions which render their molecules less dynamic and produce a more gel-like or nearly solid state. (fsu.edu)
  • lipids
  • The main lipids are phospholipids, with glycolipids embedded in the external portion of the membrane acting as cell identifiers. (reference.com)
  • Scramblases are inherently nonspecific and function to randomize the distribution of newly synthesized lipids in the endoplasmic reticulum or plasma membrane lipids in activated cells. (nih.gov)
  • cytosol
  • In each layer of a plasma membrane, the hydrophobic lipid tails are oriented inwards and the hydrophilic phosphate groups are aligned so they face outwards, either toward the aqueous cytosol of the cell or the outside environment. (fsu.edu)
  • Disruption of plant microfilaments had no effect on Hechtian strands but mimicked the effect of RGD peptides on wall defenses, suggesting that the expression of cell wall-associated defenses involves communication between the plant cell wall and the cytosol across the plasma membrane. (mendeley.com)
  • selective
  • Cholesterol in the plasma membrane helps to make it less flexible, and it also enables the cell to be selective regarding what size molecules are allowed to enter the cell. (reference.com)
  • The selective permeability of the plasma membrane enables small polar molecules to diffuse through to the interior of the cell, but large polar molecules and certain ions are kept from passing through on their own. (reference.com)
  • Because of the selective permeability of the plasma membrane, the cell is able to maintain the correct ratio of osmotic pressure between its interior and its outside environment. (reference.com)
  • adhesion
  • The membrane plays a role in cellular adhesion, cell signaling and ion conductivity. (reference.com)
  • Plasma membrane-cell wall adhesion is required for expression of plant defense responses during fungal penetration. (mendeley.com)
  • In the current study, we provide evidence that the expression of these defenses is dependent on adhesion between the plant cell wall and the plasma membrane. (mendeley.com)
  • Peptides containing an Arg-Gly-Asp (RGD) motif, which interfered with plasma membrane-cell wall adhesion as shown by the loss of the thin plasma membrane-cell wall connections known as Hechtian strands, reduced the expression of cell wall-associated defense responses during the penetration of nonhost plants by biotrophic fungal pathogens. (mendeley.com)
  • In interactions that were characterized by the early expression of cell wall-associated defenses, there was no change, or an increase, in plasma membrane-cell wall adhesion under the penetration point as the fungus grew through the plant cell wall. (mendeley.com)
  • In contrast, for rust fungus interactions with host plants, there was a strong correlation between a lack of cell wall-associated defenses and a localized decrease in plasma membrane-cell wall adhesion under the penetration point. (mendeley.com)
  • Abolition of this localized decreased adhesion by previous inoculation with a fungus that increased plasma membrane-cell wall adhesion resulted in reduced penetration by the rust fungus and induction of cell wall-associated defenses. (mendeley.com)
  • These results suggest that rust fungi may induce a decrease in plasma membrane-cell wall adhesion as a means of disrupting the expression of nonspecific defense responses during penetration of host cells. (mendeley.com)
  • Cells
  • All living cells, prokaryotic and eukaryotic, have a plasma membrane that encloses their contents and serves as a semi-porous barrier to the outside environment. (fsu.edu)
  • Cells are able to regulate the fluidity of their plasma membranes to meet their particular needs by synthesizing more of certain types of molecules, such as those with specific kinds of bonds that keep them fluid at lower temperatures. (fsu.edu)
  • In prokaryotes and plants, the plasma membrane is an inner layer of protection since a rigid cell wall forms the outside boundary for their cells. (fsu.edu)
  • Eukaryotic cells are generally ten times larger than prokaryotic cells and have membranes enclosing interior components, the organelles. (fsu.edu)
  • To visualize the state of the plasma membrane-cell wall interaction during fungal penetration, we observed living cells during sucrose-induced plasmolysis. (mendeley.com)
  • boundary
  • The membrane acts as a boundary, holding the cell constituents together and keeping other substances from entering. (fsu.edu)
  • The plasma membrane (PM) represents a boundary of plants to sense changes in their biotic and abiotic environment. (warwick.ac.uk)
  • amino
  • Small molecules, such as oxygen, carbon dioxide, and water, are able to pass freely across the membrane, but the passage of larger molecules, such as amino acids and sugars, is carefully regulated. (fsu.edu)
  • molecules
  • The plasma membrane is permeable to specific molecules, however, and allows nutrients and other essential elements to enter the cell and waste materials to leave the cell. (fsu.edu)
  • substances
  • The function of the nuclear membrane in an animal cell is to hold the DNA inside the nucleus in order to protect it from surrounding substances. (reference.com)
  • flexible
  • With only the flexible plasma membrane left to enclose them, these primordial creatures would have been able to expand in size and complexity. (fsu.edu)