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  • Psychological
  • An altered state is any mental state(s), induced by various physiological, psychological, or pharmacological maneuvers or agents, which can be recognized subjectively by the individual himself (or by an objective observer of the individual) as representing a sufficient deviation in subjective experience of psychological functioning from certain general norms for that individual during alert, waking consciousness. (wikipedia.org)
  • ecology
  • Here we examine the global introduction history and invasion ecology of Proteaceae-a large plant family with many taxa that have been widely disseminated by humans, but with few known invaders. (jove.com)
  • Pathology
  • The technique was invented by Professor Elsayed Elsayed Wagih in collaboration with Professor Jacqueline Fletcher of the Department of Plant Pathology, Noble Research Centre, Oklahoma State University, USA in 1993. (wikipedia.org)
  • metabolic
  • Here we describe a method for producing 13 C and 15 N labeled plant material that is either uniformly labeled throughout the plant or differentially labeled in structural and metabolic plant components. (jove.com)
  • Through this method we have produced plant material with a 4.4 atom% 13 C and 6.7 atom% 15 N uniform plant label, or material that is differentially labeled by up to 1.29 atom% 13 C and 0.56 atom% 15 N in its metabolic and structural components (hot water extractable and hot water residual components, respectively). (jove.com)
  • pathogens
  • Identification of crop plants including maize, wheat, and rice that are resistant to various biotrophic pathogens has significantly decreased yield losses annually 3-5 . (jove.com)
  • From the perspective of applied research, it is important to study the significance of plant protection and growth promoting effect, and the safety of induced resistance factors, and a kind of factor can cause plant to a variety of ) Pathogens, and even extensive pests, the protection of the system, then it has as a good basis for applied research materials. (wikipedia.org)
  • vascular
  • Further study indicated that the average cell length in both leaf and root vascular bundles was enhanced, and the cell growth in suspension cultures was increased, which revealed the cellular basis for OsEXPA8-mediated rice plant growth acceleration. (jove.com)
  • composition
  • however biotic feedbacks such as plant-soil feedbacks (PSF) have large effects on plant performance, and create environmental heterogeneity that depends on the community composition. (jove.com)
  • The composition of the associated fauna as well as stable isotope data on Hipparion (s.l.) indicate that it inhabited an evergreen forest in a C3-plant environment. (jove.com)
  • This interface, whether it is between plants and their resources or large herbivores and grasses, is often characterized by dramatic differences in the elemental composition of each participant. (wikipedia.org)
  • gibberellic
  • Genes in the SQUAMOSA promoter-binding protein (SBP-box) gene family encode SBP proteins, which perform a variety of regulatory functions that are involved in leaf development, vegetative phase change, flower and fruit development, plant architecture, sporogenesis, gibberellic acid signaling, and toxin response [ 4 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • several
  • During the last few years, NO has been detected in several plant species, and an increasing number of reports on its function have implicated NO as an important effector in plant growth, development, and defense. (unimi.it)
  • The phages were isolated mainly from several waste water treatment plants in Germany. (jove.com)
  • Short-lived electrical events called action potentials occur in several types of animal cells which are called excitable cells, a category of cell include neurons, muscle cells, and endocrine cells, as well as in some plant cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • citation needed] Various mechanisms have been proposed to explain these, and there may be several mechanisms underlying the differing phenomena observed. (wikipedia.org)
  • taxa
  • However, most plant groups studied in detail (e.g. pines and acacias) have a high percentage of invasive taxa. (jove.com)
  • The phenomenon helps to explain how some taxa are much more diverse and have many more species than their sister taxa. (wikipedia.org)
  • varieties
  • Indian Science Congress Association, life member Indian Phytopathological Society, life member Indian Virological Society, fellow Deutsche Phytomedizinische Gesellschaft Deutsche Virologische Gesellschaft Scientific papers Dutt, M., Sarkar, S. & Dutta, C.T.: Physiological studies on diploid and polyploid varieties of banana. (wikipedia.org)
  • efficiency
  • Cellwall-free protoplasts of plant cells (mainly of tobacco and Chinese cabbage) were infected with viruses or with their RNA with a high efficiency and used for physiological investigations. (wikipedia.org)
  • effect
  • Plants can then be placed in these soil treatments to determine the effect of plant-induced soil heterogeneity on plant performance. (jove.com)
  • The ultimate effect is on plant growth as well as development and reduced yield and quality. (wikipedia.org)
  • mainly
  • Desert plants are a major food source for desert tortoises (Gopherus agassizii), as they have a mainly herbivorous diet. (wikipedia.org)
  • surfaces
  • We describe a recently developed method to measure mechanical properties of the surfaces of plant tissues using atomic force microscopy (AFM) micro/nano-indentations, for a JPK AFM. (jove.com)
  • Cells actively sense ECM rigidity and migrate preferentially towards stiffer surfaces in a phenomenon called durotaxis. (wikipedia.org)
  • calcium
  • The importance of having sufficient amounts of phosphorus further resides in the physiological importance of maintaining a proper phosphorus to calcium ratio. (wikipedia.org)
  • In addition to desert plants, desert tortoises also consume vulture feces (which contain bones), soil (layers contain calcium), mammal hairs, feathers, arthropods, stones, bones of conspecifics, as well as snake and lizard skin castings. (wikipedia.org)
  • This parallels the phenomenon of osteophagy in birds, in which snail shells are ingested by egg-laying females to supplement the increased calcium needed for eggshell formation. (wikipedia.org)
  • cause
  • Phosphate deficiencies can cause physiological side effects, especially pertaining to the reproductive system, as well as side effects of delayed growth and failure to regenerate new bone. (wikipedia.org)
  • Desert plants grow in mineral-deficient soil, and may be a cause of mineral deficiency in desert tortoise diets, resulting in the intake of this supplemental material. (wikipedia.org)
  • this may cause an increase in ethylene production, which may in turn cause some of the phenomena otherwise attributed to agravitropism. (wikipedia.org)
  • Results
  • Representative results from growing Andropogon gerardii Kaw demonstrate the system's ability to efficiently label plant material at the targeted levels. (jove.com)
  • These results support a role for expansins in cell expansion and plant growth. (jove.com)
  • sufficient
  • Specialising for a plant based diet offered early herbivores sufficient resources to radiate as energy was not lost to higher trophic levels and few competitors existed at the time. (wikipedia.org)
  • study
  • In the 1820s, the French physiologist Henri Milne-Edwards introduced the notion of physiological division of labor, which allowed to "compare and study living things as if they were machines created by the industry of man. (wikipedia.org)
  • conditions
  • however maintaining favorable environmental conditions for both plant epidermal peels and bacterial cells has been challenging. (jove.com)
  • rice
  • expansin gene OsEXPA8 in rice growth and development by generating transgenic plants. (jove.com)
  • Overexpression of OsEXPA8 in rice plants yielded pleiotropic phenotypes of improved root system architecture (longer primary roots, more lateral roots and root hairs), increased plant height, enhanced leaf number and enlarged leaf size. (jove.com)
  • soil
  • Isotope labeled plant material has been used in various studies of litter decomposition and soil organic matter formation 1-4 . (jove.com)
  • Plants are grown from surface-sterilized seeds for two weeks before receiving a B. bassiana treatment of 10 8 conidia/ml (or water) applied either as a foliar spray or a soil drench. (jove.com)
  • Here, we describe a protocol for manipulating plant-induced soil heterogeneity. (jove.com)
  • Therefore, it would be expected that the increased physiological needs of juvenile and gravid female tortoises would also increase mineral demands and promote ingestion of bones, stones, and soil. (wikipedia.org)
  • growth
  • Considering their proven beneficial influence on plant growth and their ubiquity, endophytic Sebacinales may be a previously unrecognized universal hidden force in plant ecosystems. (jove.com)
  • The media is inspected every 2-3 days to observe fungal growth associated with plant sections and record the occurrence of B. bassiana to estimate the extent of its endophytic colonization. (jove.com)
  • A clinostat is a device which uses rotation to negate the effects of gravitational pull on plant growth (gravitropism) and development (gravimorphism). (wikipedia.org)
  • contribution
  • Aristotle's successor at the Lyceum, Theophrastus, wrote a series of books on botany that survived as the most important contribution of antiquity to the plant sciences, even into the Middle Ages. (wikipedia.org)
  • genus
  • Among his contributions to our knowledge of the higher plants, his exhaustive monograph on the curious genus of water-ferns, Salvinia, deserves special mention. (wikipedia.org)
  • The nectar spurs in Aquilegia, a diverse genus of flowering plant, are considered a key innovation because of this. (wikipedia.org)
  • differential
  • Uniformly labeled plant material is produced by continuous labeling from seedling to harvest, while differential labeling is achieved by removing the growing plants from the chamber weeks prior to harvest. (jove.com)
  • time
  • The traditional approach to this task is to sample plants one-at-a-time. (jove.com)
  • This level of throughput is made possible by the fact that tissue is harvested from plants 96-at-a-time, rather than one-at-a-time. (jove.com)
  • A plant only reacts to gravity if the gravistimulation is maintained for longer than a critical amount of time, called the minimal presentation time (MPT). (wikipedia.org)
  • cell
  • These include laser-capture microdissection (LCM) 2 or GFP expressing plants used for protoplast generation and subsequent fluorescence activated cell sorting (FACS) 3,4 , the recently described INTACT system for nuclear precipitation 5 and immunoprecipitation of polysomes 6 . (jove.com)
  • A broadly acceptable definition of a sense would be "A system that consists of a group of sensory cell types that responds to a specific physical phenomenon, and that corresponds to a particular group of regions within the brain where the signals are received and interpreted. (wikipedia.org)
  • The physiological phenomena of action potentials are possible because voltage-gated ion channels allow the resting potential caused by electrochemical gradient on either side of a cell membrane to resolve. (wikipedia.org)
  • The plant ECM includes cell wall components, like cellulose, in addition to more complex signaling molecules. (wikipedia.org)