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  • Interactions
  • In this study, the interactions of the diazotrophic Paenibacillus beijingensis BJ-18 with wheat, maize, and cucumber were investigated when it was inoculated to these plant seedlings grown in both low N and high N soils, with un-inoculated plants as controls. (frontiersin.org)
  • Our multilevel analysis collectively shows how plant-plant interactions interfere with a fundamental cellular process, histone acetylation, by targeting an evolutionarily highly conserved class of enzymes. (plantcell.org)
  • fungi
  • Fungi produce a large number of metabolites that are not essential for life, but may provide the fungus with an ecological advantage in certain environments. (mdpi.com)
  • An understanding of the pathogenicity of trichothecene-producing fungi and the regulation of trichothecene biosynthesis has become increasingly important to combat their spread throughout North America and other areas worldwide. (mdpi.com)
  • Pubmed ID: 11860261 The Ustilaginales are a vast and diverse group of fungi, which includes the plant pathogenic smuts that cause significant losses to crops worldwide. (jove.com)
  • corn
  • Harpin was applied at a rate of 160 g/ha as a spray over the top of corn plants at growth stages V1 to V2 and again at V5 to V6. (plantmanagementnetwork.org)
  • The corn hybrid Pioneer 32R25, was planted at two sites on Mississippi State University s Delta Branch Experiment Station near Stoneville, MS. Site 1 was on a Dundee silty clay soil (fine-silty, mixed, thermic Aeric Ochraqualfs) prepared for planting by forming 40-cm ridges spaced 76 cm apart. (plantmanagementnetwork.org)
  • populations
  • The uniform host populations facilitate the specialization of pathogens to particular crop cultivars and allow the build-up of large population sizes. (royalsocietypublishing.org)
  • When a non-native plant is introduced into a Florida habitat, it may have a competitive advantage over native plant populations because the natural factors that regulated the introduced plant in its native range may not exist in Florida. (ufl.edu)
  • For more than fifty years, non-native biological control agents have been deliberately introduced or have arrived from elsewhere on their own to combat non-native invading plant populations in Florida. (ufl.edu)
  • infections
  • The pathogen develops within the host and eventually begins to produce new inoculum, which, in turn, can be dispersed to new susceptible sites to initiate new infections. (apsnet.org)
  • establishment
  • Part of the establishment started to produce medicine. (wnd.com)
  • Minimizing the use of overhead sprinklers during plant establishment and for freeze protection may also reduce the spread and severity of the disease. (ufl.edu)
  • Harpin
  • The Harpin Protein response among plants is so prevalent and extensive that the resulting beneficial activity has been documented across a broad spectrum of crops including Field Crops, Vegetables, Tree Fruit and Vines, Turf and Ornamental and Specialty Crops. (planthealthcare.com)
  • Each of these products has been reviewed and registered with the US-EPA, and Plant Health Care, Inc. is the sole provider of commercial Harpin technology in the world. (planthealthcare.com)
  • In one study, harpin application was noted to increase plant growth (12,13). (plantmanagementnetwork.org)
  • disease
  • Disease on plants usually starts out at a low level, a small number of plants affected and a small amount of plant tissue affected, and it becomes of concern to us only when its incidence and severity increases with time. (apsnet.org)
  • When we look at some examples of plant disease epidemics from the published literature, we not only notice that the incidence or severity starts near zero and then increases dramatically, but we also can discern some distinct patterns of development with time. (apsnet.org)
  • Obviously plant disease cannot continue to increase forever, and as the level of disease approaches 100%, the disease progress curve gradually flattens out. (apsnet.org)
  • To be sure, not all examples of disease progress can be as neatly categorized as these, but in general plant disease epidemics tend to be either roughly linear or exponential in the early stages, and they tend to level off as they approach some limit. (apsnet.org)
  • The impact of plant disease and the losses that it causes are a function of disease progress. (apsnet.org)
  • Likewise, we have to know what kinds of diseases tend to produce exponential disease progress curves and how we can reduce both the starting level of disease and the rate of epidemic development. (apsnet.org)
  • roots
  • Although fruit rot is the most important symptom caused by C. acutatum , the fungus can also attack other parts of the plant including the crown, leaves, petioles, and roots. (ufl.edu)
  • For decades, nano particles (NPs) and specifically carbon nano tubes (CNTs) that readily penetrate leaves have been used as adjuvants allowing glyphosate to be carried to plant roots for more efficient absorption. (oneradionetwork.com)
  • biosynthesis
  • Grasses in particular have the ability to interfere with and to outcompete neighboring plants via the biosynthesis of phytotoxic root exudates. (plantcell.org)
  • effects
  • Avis TJ, Gravel V, Antoun H, Tweddell RJ (2008) Multifacted beneficial effects of rhizosphere microorganisms on plant health and productivity. (springer.com)
  • important
  • Therefore, detecting and identifying which chemotype is present in a given population are important to predicting the specific toxins that may be produced and, therefore, to evaluating the risk of exposure. (mdpi.com)
  • The broader impact/commercial potential of this Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) Phase I project is to develop a novel seed treatment technology for plants, based on small naturally occurring molecules proven to activate natural defenses against a wide range of agriculturally important pathogens. (sbir.gov)
  • These natural enemies play an important role in keeping the the native plant population in check. (ufl.edu)
  • grown
  • AMT (ammonium transporter), NRT (nitrate transporter), NiR (nitrite reductase), NR, GS and GOGAT (glutamate synthase) in the inoculated plants grown under low N were up-regulated 1.5-91.9 folds, but they were not obviously changed under high N. Taken together, P. beijingensis BJ-18 was an effective, endophytic and diazotrophic bacterium. (frontiersin.org)
  • This is particularly true for perennial plants (forages, pastures, lawns, orchards, forests, etc.) or for annual crops that are grown in monoculture year after year. (apsnet.org)
  • advantages
  • Biological control agents are used to decrease the invasive plants' competitive advantages over native plants, and to weaken the invading population by increasing leaf mortality, decreasing plant size, reducing flower and seed production, and/or limiting population expansion. (ufl.edu)
  • suppress
  • Subsequent generations of the introduced organism suppress the target plants over a long period of time. (ufl.edu)
  • Leaves
  • Some conidia are formed on green leaves and petioles, and more are produced as the tissue ages and dies. (ufl.edu)
  • 2016
  • A total of 653 animal feed samples (494 compound feeds, 159 feed ingredients) produced domestically were sampled five times from 2009 to 2016 (2009, 2010, 2012, 2014, and 2016) from feed factories in South Korea. (mdpi.com)
  • cause
  • Today, the problem is the effect of GM foods on human health is focused almost entirely on arguments as to whether Huber's pathogen exists, instead of identifying the mechanism by which residues of NPs in glyphosate cause cancer by damaging human DNA. (oneradionetwork.com)