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  • leaf
  • leaf, epidermis with thick cuticle and suberin. (uvigo.es)
  • The epidermis of an expanding dicot leaf is a mosaic of cells differing in identity, size and differentiation stage. (blogspot.com)
  • The results support the hypothesis that growth heterogeneity of leaf epidermis is not dependent on cell cycle regulation per se. (blogspot.com)
  • The barley (Hordeum vulgare) ROP (RHO of plants) G-protein RACB is required for full susceptibility of the leaf epidermis to invasion by the biotrophic fungus Blumeria graminis f. sp hordei. (tum.de)
  • Stable transgenic knockdown of RACB reduced the ability of barley to accommodate haustoria of B. graminis in intact epidermal leaf cells and to form hairs on the root epidermis, suggesting that RACB is a common element of root hair outgrowth and ingrowth of haustoria in leaf epidermal cells. (tum.de)
  • Overexpression of OsEXPA8 in rice plants yielded pleiotropic phenotypes of improved root system architecture (longer primary roots, more lateral roots and root hairs), increased plant height, enhanced leaf number and enlarged leaf size. (jove.com)
  • Further study indicated that the average cell length in both leaf and root vascular bundles was enhanced, and the cell growth in suspension cultures was increased, which revealed the cellular basis for OsEXPA8-mediated rice plant growth acceleration. (jove.com)
  • Leaf epidermis can be kept alive and healthy with MES buffer (10 mM KCl, 25 mM MES-KOH, pH 6.15) for electrophysiological experiments of guard cells. (jove.com)
  • In the low nutrient treatment, C. odorata plants from nonnative ranges showed significantly lower competitive ability (competition-driven decreases in plant height and biomass were more), which was associated with their lower root to shoot ratios and higher total leaf phenolic content (defense trait). (jove.com)
  • In the high nutrient treatment, C. odorata plants from nonnative ranges showed lower leaf toughness and cellulosic contents (defense traits) but similar competitive ability compared with plants from native ranges, which was also associated with their lower root to shoot ratios. (jove.com)
  • Heliotropic leaf movement or leaf 'solar tracking' occurs for a wide variety of plants, including many desert species and some crops. (jove.com)
  • We measured abundances and several leaf traits known to correlate with strategies used by plants to fix carbon and acquire resources, i.e. specific leaf area (SLA), leaf dry matter content (LDMC), leaf nutrient concentrations (N, C:N, P), assimilation rates (Amax) and photosynthetic nitrogen use efficiency (PNUE). (jove.com)
  • We compared fresh-leaf and dry-leaf flammability (time to ignition) between 52 native and 27 exotic plant species inhabiting dry sclerophyll forest. (jove.com)
  • Our findings for increased flammability linked with larger leaf size in exotics demonstrate that exotic plant species have the potential to increase the spread of bushfires in dry sclerophyll forest. (jove.com)
  • Our leaf trait measurement system is not limited to shade-avoidance research and will accelerate leaf phenotyping of many mutants and screening plants by leaf phenotyping. (jove.com)
  • species
  • Research has proven that extracts from two combinations of herbs will deter the growth of a dangerous, sometimes flesh-eating bacteria species called Staphylococcus epidermidis. (plantmedicines.org)
  • Pythium species cause a variety of diseases including root rots of numerous plant species, Pythium blight of turf, and damping-off , which involves seed rot and pre- and post-emergence seedling death. (apsnet.org)
  • Phytophthora species cause late blight of potato and tomato, foliar blights on peppers and cucurbits, and root or stem rots of many plant species. (apsnet.org)
  • The family Albuginaceae includes Albugo , an obligate parasite that produces a generally mild disease called white rust (not a true rust) on the stems, leaves, and fruit of cruciferous plants such as radish, horseradish, and several weed species. (apsnet.org)
  • The evolution of competitive ability of invasive plant species is generally studied in the context of adaptive responses to novel biotic environments (enemy release) in introduced ranges. (jove.com)
  • Soils can be collected from the zone of root influence (soils from the rhizosphere and directly adjacent to the rhizosphere) of plants in the field from conspecific and heterospecific plant species. (jove.com)
  • tissues
  • Plant tissues. (uvigo.es)
  • Atlas of plant and animal tissues. (uvigo.es)
  • GAX was detected only in the skin and inner epidermis of the pericarp using LM11 antibodies, whereas a large increase in XG was detected in all fruit tissues using LM15 antibodies. (jove.com)
  • In contrast, GAX and XG biosynthesis-related genes were expressed in all tomato fruit tissues even during ripening, indicating that XG was synthesized throughout the fruit and that GAX may be synthesized only in the vascular bundles and the inner epidermis. (jove.com)
  • We describe a recently developed method to measure mechanical properties of the surfaces of plant tissues using atomic force microscopy (AFM) micro/nano-indentations, for a JPK AFM. (jove.com)
  • stem
  • We explore this question for the characteristic gene expression domains of the plant stem cell niche residing in the shoot apical meristem. (sciencemag.org)
  • Our findings suggest that the deformation of the tissue transposes meristem geometry into an instructive scaling and positional input for the apical plant stem cell niche. (sciencemag.org)
  • Using a combination of computational and experimental approaches, we address this question in the shoot apical meristem (SAM), the stem cell niche source of all aboveground plant organs ( 8 ). (sciencemag.org)
  • herbivore
  • Due to their sessile life style plants are exposed to numerous stresses, including varying light intensities, wind, extreme temperatures, shortage of water and nutrients, pathogen, and herbivore attack. (frontiersin.org)
  • Herbivore-induced plant volatiles (HIPVs) are commonly emitted from plants after herbivore attack 1,2 . (jove.com)
  • Over the past 3 decades researchers have documented that HIPVs can repel or attract herbivores, attract the natural enemies of herbivores, and in some cases they can induce or prime plant defenses prior to herbivore attack. (jove.com)
  • leaves
  • Closer examination of the adaxial epidermis of rosette leaves revealed that in addition to provoking the previously described fusion phenotype in leaves and floral organs, mutations in FDH have a deleterious effect on trichome differentiation. (plantcell.org)
  • Using pMYB51/HIG1-uidA and pMYB28/PMG1/HAG1-uidA reporter plants we demonstrate that production of these important compounds is activated in trichomes of leaves or inflorescences in response to wounding. (frontiersin.org)
  • waxy, protective layer that covers the stems, leaves, and flowers of many plants and helps prevent water loss. (studystack.com)
  • The flammability of plant leaves influences the spread of fire through vegetation. (jove.com)
  • Exotic plants invading native vegetation may increase the spread of bushfires if their leaves are more flammable than native leaves. (jove.com)
  • Leaves are the primary photosynthetic organ, and their size and shape vary developmentally and environmentally within a plant. (jove.com)
  • Bacteria
  • Glucosinolates (GS) are important plant secondary metabolites in plant resistance to herbivores, bacteria, and fungi, which have been shown to be accumulating in different organs and tissue types at varying concentrations. (frontiersin.org)
  • promoter
  • Plants overexpressing FDH under control of the cauliflower mosaic virus 35S promoter segregated fdh phenocopies, wild-type individuals, and plants showing severe retardation of growth and development. (plantcell.org)
  • Blumeria
  • Thirteen cDNAs representing eight genes involved in monolignol biosynthesis were cloned from an expression sequence tag (EST) library derived from the epidermis of diploid wheat (Triticum monococcum) infected with Blumeria graminis f. sp. (nih.gov)
  • defensive
  • These HIPVs are mainly regulated by the defensive plant hormone jasmonic acid (JA) and its volatile derivative methyl jasmonate (MeJA) 3,4,5 . (jove.com)
  • transcripts
  • FDH transcripts were detected exclusively in the epidermis of young vegetative and floral organs. (plantcell.org)
  • Transcripts of phenylalanine ammonia lyase (PAL), caffeic acid O-methyltransferase (CAOMT), ferulic acid hydroxylase (FAH), caffeoyl-CoA O-methyltransferase (CCoAMT), and cinnamyl alcohol dehydrogenase (CAD) were accumulated, particularly in the epidermis. (nih.gov)
  • carbon
  • From these and other studies, however, it has become apparent that structural components of plant material behave differently than metabolic components ( i.e . leachable low molecular weight compounds) in terms of microbial utilization and long-term carbon storage 5-7 . (jove.com)
  • mechanism
  • Our results indicate that genetically based shifts in biomass allocation (responses to abiotic environments) also influence competitive abilities of invasive plants, and provide a first potential mechanism for the interaction between range and environment (environment-dependent difference between ranges). (jove.com)
  • Native
  • Here we studied differences in competitive ability between Chromolaena odorata plants of populations from nonnative versus native ranges, considering biogeographical differences in both biotic and abiotic environments. (jove.com)
  • responses
  • This knowledge opens new perspectives for the understanding of defence responses underlying pathogenic oomycete/plant interaction upon challenge with P. cinnamomi . (biomedcentral.com)
  • Two example experiments are presented: (1) a field experiment with a 6-patch grid of soils to measure plant population responses and (2) a greenhouse experiment with 2-patch soils to measure individual plant responses. (jove.com)
  • growth
  • New cactus growers may not know what normal growth should look like or may have inherited a plant that is already etiolated. (cactiguide.com)
  • We used a design of experiments (DoE) approach to determine the impact of major factors such as regulatory elements in the expression construct, plant growth and development parameters, and the incubation conditions during expression, on the variability of expression between batches. (jove.com)
  • Phytophthora
  • Phlomis purpurea roots produce bioactive compounds exhibiting antitumor and anti- Phytophthora activities with potential to protect susceptible plants. (biomedcentral.com)
  • layer
  • If goods are drying out your skin layer your oil production can increase while your epidermis tries to create balance. (blogspot.com)
  • mechanical
  • In a recent paper 6 , I reported that feeding by gypsy moth caterpillars, exogenous MeJA application, and mechanical damage induce the emissions of volatiles from blueberry plants, albeit differently. (jove.com)
  • grown
  • This level of light is extremely difficult to provide for plants grown indoors. (cactiguide.com)
  • Plants grown in windowsills will also lean towards the light as the inner side will be getting much less light than the side facing the sun. (cactiguide.com)
  • production
  • Plants provide multiple benefits for the production of biopharmaceuticals including low costs, scalability, and safety. (jove.com)