Loading...
  • infections
  • Nevertheless, it has been suggested that cells released from these biofilms may induce severe acute infections with bacteraemia as one of its major associated clinical manifestations. (frontiersin.org)
  • Overall, these results not only provide insights into the understanding of the role of biofilm-released cells in S. epidermidis biofilm-related infections and pathogenesis, but may also help explain the relapsing character of these infections. (frontiersin.org)
  • cells
  • However, how biofilm-released cells interact with the host remains unclear. (frontiersin.org)
  • Here, using a murine model of hematogenously disseminated infection, we characterized the interaction of cells released from S. epidermidis biofilms with the immune system. (frontiersin.org)
  • Gene expression analysis of mouse splenocytes suggested that biofilm-released cells might be particularly effective at activating inflammatory and antigen presenting cells and inducing cellular apoptosis. (frontiersin.org)
  • Furthermore, biofilm-released cells induced a higher production of pro-inflammatory cytokines, in contrast to mice infected with planktonic cells, even though these had a similar bacterial load in livers and spleens. (frontiersin.org)
  • The later refers to the release of bacterial cells from the biofilm to the surrounding environment, and is the least understood stage of the biofilm lifecycle ( Boles and Horswill, 2011 ). (frontiersin.org)
  • phenotypic
  • The environmental heterogeneity that develops in biofilms can accelerate phenotypic and genotypic diversity in bacterial populations that allows them to accomodate adverse ecological conditions within the biofilm. (beds.ac.uk)
  • Furthermore
  • Furthermore, we analyzed the expression profile of selected biofilm thickness associated genes in the luxS - mutant strain. (beds.ac.uk)