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  • time
  • Planck Time / Length - The shortest possible units of time and length. (universeadventure.org)
  • A Planck time is about 5.4x10 -44 seconds, and a Planck length is about 1.6x10 -35 meters. (universeadventure.org)
  • At that time, the recent advent of quantum mechanics was radically altering the conception of particles, as a single particle could seemingly span a field as would a wave , a paradox still eluding satisfactory explanation. (wikipedia.org)
  • The wave is always viewed as a 2-dimensional line mapping linear time and the human experience of it along its entire length. (abovetopsecret.com)
  • It's believed that the energy densities necessary for this final unification existed at, or very near, 1 Planck time (10 −44 seconds) after the Big Bang. (rationalwiki.org)
  • The phenomenon of charge is for the first time explained to result from the zero point oscillations of Planck mass particles bound in vortex filaments. (wikipedia.org)
  • Then, at 10^-36 sec. appeared the gluon which transformed itself, 75% of the time, into massive particles. (sciencechatforum.com)
  • Now if one treats Reality as granular at the Planck length (composed of 3D cells) grown on the surface of a 4D Hyper-Sphere, then Time and the Expansion of the Universe are the same thing. (sciencechatforum.com)
  • The only way a particle can move to a fresh new layer of Time. (sciencechatforum.com)
  • It is hypothesised that the fundamental dimensions of Time, Length, Mass, Charge and Temperature are linked. (vixra.org)
  • This region may be characterized by energies around 7009195465531414000♠1.22×1019 GeV (the Planck energy), time intervals around 6956538999999999999♠5.39×10−44 s (the Planck time) and lengths around 6965162000000000000♠1.62×10−35 m (the Planck length). (wikipedia.org)
  • In the system of Planck units, a similar set of base quantities may be selected, and the Planck base unit of length is then known simply as the Planck length, the base unit of time is the Planck time, and so on. (wikipedia.org)
  • Likewise, the distance traveled by light during 1 Planck time is 1 Planck length. (wikipedia.org)
  • This is mostly due to uncertainty in the value of the gravitational constant G. Today the value of the speed of light c in SI units is not subject to measurement error, because the SI base unit of length, the metre, is now defined as the length of the path travelled by light in vacuum during a time interval of 1/299792458 of a second. (wikipedia.org)
  • Astronomers use the mass of the sun (M☉). Unlike other physical quantities, mass-energy does not have an a priori expected minimal quantity, as is the case with time or length, or an observed basic quantum as in the case of electric charge. (wikipedia.org)
  • By contrast, examples of quantities with dimensions are length, time, and speed, which are measured in dimensional units, such as metre, second and metre per second. (wikipedia.org)
  • Those n = 5 variables are built up from k = 3 fundamental dimensions, the length: L (SI units: m), time: T (s), and mass: M (kg). (wikipedia.org)
  • Because objects within the bubble are not moving (locally) faster than light, the mathematical formulation of the Alcubierre metric is consistent with the conventional claims of the laws of relativity (namely, that an object with mass cannot attain or exceed the speed of light) and conventional relativistic effects such as time dilation would not apply as they would with conventional motion at near-light speeds. (wikipedia.org)
  • The Planck acceleration is the acceleration from zero speed to the speed of light during one Planck time. (wikipedia.org)
  • The Planck acceleration is the highest acceleration conceivable in the Universe, as the speed of light is the highest possible speed and the Planck time is the shortest possible duration of any meaningful physical process. (wikipedia.org)
  • In other words, nothing higher than the Planck acceleration can be measured, since that would imply measuring a time interval shorter than the Planck time. (wikipedia.org)
  • This is much longer than the Planck time, which is only about 5.39×10−44 seconds. (wikipedia.org)
  • The Planck time is a theoretical lower-bound on the length of time that could exist between two connected events, but it is not a quantization of time itself since there is no requirement that the time between two events be separated by a discrete number of Planck times. (wikipedia.org)
  • Once a particle is inside the horizon, moving into the hole is as inevitable as moving forward in time, and can actually be thought of as equivalent to doing so, depending on the spacetime coordinate system used. (wikipedia.org)
  • This differs from the concept of particle horizon, which represents the largest comoving distance from which light emitted in the past could have reached the observer at a given time. (wikipedia.org)
  • How the particle horizon changes with time depends on the nature of the expansion of the Universe. (wikipedia.org)
  • Radiation
  • If quantum effects near the event horizon produce pairs of particles, one of them would fall into the black hole, but the other one would escape as so-called Hawking radiation. (phys.org)
  • Hawking radiation reduces the mass and energy of black holes and is therefore also known as black hole evaporation. (wikipedia.org)
  • Physical insight into the process may be gained by imagining that particle-antiparticle radiation is emitted from just beyond the event horizon. (wikipedia.org)
  • The Planck particle would also have a very fleeting existence, evaporating due to Hawking radiation after approximately 6961500000000000000♠5×10−39 seconds. (wikipedia.org)
  • Light travels at speed c/n when not in a vacuum but traveling through a medium with refractive index = n (causing refraction), and in some materials other particles can travel faster than c/n (but still slower than c), leading to Cherenkov radiation (see phase velocity below). (wikipedia.org)
  • They might be observed by astrophysicists through the particles they are expected to emit by Hawking radiation. (wikipedia.org)
  • Caldirola claims the chronon has important implications for quantum mechanics, in particular that it allows for a clear answer to the question of whether a free-falling charged particle does or does not emit radiation. (wikipedia.org)
  • Quarks
  • Via quantum theory, protons and neutrons were found to contain quarks - up quarks and down quarks -now considered elementary particles. (wikipedia.org)
  • Therefore, one can conclude that most of the visible mass of the universe consists of protons and neutrons, which, like all baryons, in turn consist of up quarks and down quarks. (wikipedia.org)
  • gravity
  • Clearly, gravity exerts force on matter comprised of these point particles, so theories that cannot account for that interaction (like Relativity and the Standard Model) are considered incomplete. (rationalwiki.org)
  • The transformation of those massive particles was responsible for pushing the metric at their center of gravity, back in "previous times" when the metric was smaller. (sciencechatforum.com)
  • Proton
  • For example, we can make accurate predictions for the complex proton-proton collisions at CERN's Large Hadron Collider, the most powerful man-made particle accelerator. (phys.org)
  • supersymmetric
  • Superstring theory is an attempt to explain all of the particles and fundamental forces of nature in one theory by modeling them as vibrations of tiny supersymmetric strings. (wikipedia.org)
  • No supersymmetric particles have been discovered and recent research at LHC and Tevatron has excluded some of the ranges. (wikipedia.org)
  • For instance, the mass constraint of the Minimal Supersymmetric Standard Model squarks has been up to 1.1 TeV, and gluinos up to 500 GeV. (wikipedia.org)
  • collisions
  • Popular concerns have then been raised over end-of-the-world scenarios (see Safety of particle collisions at the Large Hadron Collider). (wikipedia.org)
  • speed of li
  • This may approach twice the speed of light, as in the case of two particles travelling at close to the speed of light in opposite directions with respect to the reference frame. (wikipedia.org)
  • black hole's
  • they are not a singularity, which the classic view holds to be a zero-dimensional, zero-volume point into which a black hole's entire mass is concentrated. (wikipedia.org)
  • radius
  • The quark stabilizes at a radius of 8.8 Planck lengths and acquires a mass of 3.2 MeV, in remarkable agreement with accepted phenomenological values. (csir.co.za)
  • For the mass of the Sun this radius is approximately 3 kilometers and for the Earth it is about 9 millimeters. (wikipedia.org)