###### subatomic particle

- Proton - A subatomic particle found in the nucleus with positive electric charge. (universeadventure.org)
- Axion- A hypothetical subatomic particle postulated to account for the rarity of processes that break charge-parity symmetry. (wikipedia.org)

###### postulate

- Thus Elementary Particles are real objects, however according to the first postulate they have no independent existence. (physicsforums.com)

###### bosons

- Particles currently thought to be elementary include the fundamental fermions ( quarks , leptons , antiquarks , and antileptons ), which generally are "matter particles" and " antimatter particles", as well as the fundamental bosons ( gauge bosons and the Higgs boson ), which generally are "force particles" that mediate interactions among fermions. (wikipedia.org)
- All elementary particles are-depending on their spin -either bosons or fermions . (wikipedia.org)
- Particles of integer spin, in other words full-integer, exhibit Bose-Einstein statistics and are bosons. (wikipedia.org)
- Since the other common elementary particles (such as electrons, neutrinos, or weak bosons) are so light or so rare when compared to atomic nuclei, we can neglect their mass contribution to the observable universe's total mass. (wikipedia.org)
- String theorists claim to be able to bridge this divide by proposing a string-like nature of subatomic particles (such as electrons , quarks , Higgs bosons ) and multiple extra spacial dimensions. (rationalwiki.org)
- On the Quantum scale it is assumed that only real shaped Particles (Fermions and Bosons) and real Particle shape transformations by collisions between them, are the second base for "Anti-Mirror Symmetrical" reality and the base for the UNIFICATION of all forces in nature. (physicsforums.com)
- With an exception for Neutrinos, Fermions or Bosons can be created directly by collision out of "Virgin" vacuum particles or by a series of transformations. (physicsforums.com)
- This length scale would be the distance where a Yukawa force is mediated by the weak vector bosons. (wikipedia.org)

###### elementary particle

- Yet a free electron-which is not orbiting an atomic nucleus and lacks orbital motion -appears unsplittable and remains regarded as an elementary particle. (wikipedia.org)
- Proponents of supersymmetry wholeheartedly embraced anti-commuting numbers, working on theories in which every field, and thus every physical elementary particle, has a Grassmann-conjugate partner - with physical particles having superpartners. (blogspot.com)

###### fermions

- Particles of half-integer spin exhibit Fermi-Dirac statistics and are fermions. (wikipedia.org)
- The spatial extension of fermions limits the minimum mass of a black hole to be on the order of 1016 kg, showing that mini black holes may not exist. (wikipedia.org)

###### scales

- P-Adic Numbers and Length Scales 4. (studylib.net)
- Consider EPR and non-locality and the Quantum Potential (Bohm, Hiley, 1980's) There may be only certain allowable (probabilistic) spacetimes and some of them give rise to the dominant (measured) spacetime we call the universe Are there only certain allowable or critical geometries and length scales that govern transitions between one spacetime process and another? (studylib.net)
- The metric of this complex space H is related to p-adic numbers which come into the picture above Planck length scales. (studylib.net)
- Although Albert Einstein's general theory of relativity explains gravity on larger scales as the result of massive objects distorting the fabric of space-time, it doesn't tell us anything about what happens to subatomic particles gravitationally. (phys.org)
- Poincare momenta are conserved but gravitational momenta are not conserved in cosmological length scales. (blogspot.fi)
- The decoupling of different length scales makes it possible to have a self-consistent theory that only describes the relevant length scales for a given problem. (wikipedia.org)
- Scientific reductionism says that the physical laws on the shortest length scales can be used to derive the effective description at larger length scales. (wikipedia.org)
- In relativistic mechanics time and length scales are related by the speed of light. (wikipedia.org)
- In relativistic quantum mechanics or relativistic quantum field theory, length scales are related to momentum, time and energy scales through Planck's constant and the speed of light. (wikipedia.org)
- Since in GR mass-energy and momentum-energy is the source of spacetime curvature, large fluctuations in energy and momentum mean the spacetime "fabric" could potentially become so distorted that it breaks up at sufficiently small scales. (wikipedia.org)
- For these reasons and others, at increasingly small scales, space and time are thought to be dynamical up to the Planck length and Planck time scales. (wikipedia.org)

###### charged particle-antiparticle

- The Landau pole behavior of QED (related to quantum triviality) is a consequence of screening by virtual charged particle-antiparticle pairs, such as electron-positron pairs, in the vacuum. (wikipedia.org)

###### time

- Planck Time / Length - The shortest possible units of time and length. (universeadventure.org)
- A Planck time is about 5.4x10 -44 seconds, and a Planck length is about 1.6x10 -35 meters. (universeadventure.org)
- At that time, the recent advent of quantum mechanics was radically altering the conception of particles, as a single particle could seemingly span a field as would a wave , a paradox still eluding satisfactory explanation. (wikipedia.org)
- The wave is always viewed as a 2-dimensional line mapping linear time and the human experience of it along its entire length. (abovetopsecret.com)
- It's believed that the energy densities necessary for this final unification existed at, or very near, 1 Planck time (10 −44 seconds) after the Big Bang. (rationalwiki.org)
- The phenomenon of charge is for the first time explained to result from the zero point oscillations of Planck mass particles bound in vortex filaments. (wikipedia.org)
- Then, at 10^-36 sec. appeared the gluon which transformed itself, 75% of the time, into massive particles. (sciencechatforum.com)
- Now if one treats Reality as granular at the Planck length (composed of 3D cells) grown on the surface of a 4D Hyper-Sphere, then Time and the Expansion of the Universe are the same thing. (sciencechatforum.com)
- The only way a particle can move to a fresh new layer of Time. (sciencechatforum.com)
- It is hypothesised that the fundamental dimensions of Time, Length, Mass, Charge and Temperature are linked. (vixra.org)
- This region may be characterized by energies around 7009195465531414000♠1.22×1019 GeV (the Planck energy), time intervals around 6956538999999999999♠5.39×10−44 s (the Planck time) and lengths around 6965162000000000000♠1.62×10−35 m (the Planck length). (wikipedia.org)
- In the system of Planck units, a similar set of base quantities may be selected, and the Planck base unit of length is then known simply as the Planck length, the base unit of time is the Planck time, and so on. (wikipedia.org)
- Likewise, the distance traveled by light during 1 Planck time is 1 Planck length. (wikipedia.org)
- This is mostly due to uncertainty in the value of the gravitational constant G. Today the value of the speed of light c in SI units is not subject to measurement error, because the SI base unit of length, the metre, is now defined as the length of the path travelled by light in vacuum during a time interval of 1/299792458 of a second. (wikipedia.org)
- Astronomers use the mass of the sun (M☉). Unlike other physical quantities, mass-energy does not have an a priori expected minimal quantity, as is the case with time or length, or an observed basic quantum as in the case of electric charge. (wikipedia.org)
- By contrast, examples of quantities with dimensions are length, time, and speed, which are measured in dimensional units, such as metre, second and metre per second. (wikipedia.org)
- Those n = 5 variables are built up from k = 3 fundamental dimensions, the length: L (SI units: m), time: T (s), and mass: M (kg). (wikipedia.org)
- Because objects within the bubble are not moving (locally) faster than light, the mathematical formulation of the Alcubierre metric is consistent with the conventional claims of the laws of relativity (namely, that an object with mass cannot attain or exceed the speed of light) and conventional relativistic effects such as time dilation would not apply as they would with conventional motion at near-light speeds. (wikipedia.org)
- The Planck acceleration is the acceleration from zero speed to the speed of light during one Planck time. (wikipedia.org)
- The Planck acceleration is the highest acceleration conceivable in the Universe, as the speed of light is the highest possible speed and the Planck time is the shortest possible duration of any meaningful physical process. (wikipedia.org)
- In other words, nothing higher than the Planck acceleration can be measured, since that would imply measuring a time interval shorter than the Planck time. (wikipedia.org)
- This is much longer than the Planck time, which is only about 5.39×10−44 seconds. (wikipedia.org)
- The Planck time is a theoretical lower-bound on the length of time that could exist between two connected events, but it is not a quantization of time itself since there is no requirement that the time between two events be separated by a discrete number of Planck times. (wikipedia.org)
- Once a particle is inside the horizon, moving into the hole is as inevitable as moving forward in time, and can actually be thought of as equivalent to doing so, depending on the spacetime coordinate system used. (wikipedia.org)
- This differs from the concept of particle horizon, which represents the largest comoving distance from which light emitted in the past could have reached the observer at a given time. (wikipedia.org)
- How the particle horizon changes with time depends on the nature of the expansion of the Universe. (wikipedia.org)

###### Radiation

- If quantum effects near the event horizon produce pairs of particles, one of them would fall into the black hole, but the other one would escape as so-called Hawking radiation. (phys.org)
- Hawking radiation reduces the mass and energy of black holes and is therefore also known as black hole evaporation. (wikipedia.org)
- Physical insight into the process may be gained by imagining that particle-antiparticle radiation is emitted from just beyond the event horizon. (wikipedia.org)
- The Planck particle would also have a very fleeting existence, evaporating due to Hawking radiation after approximately 6961500000000000000♠5×10−39 seconds. (wikipedia.org)
- Light travels at speed c/n when not in a vacuum but traveling through a medium with refractive index = n (causing refraction), and in some materials other particles can travel faster than c/n (but still slower than c), leading to Cherenkov radiation (see phase velocity below). (wikipedia.org)
- They might be observed by astrophysicists through the particles they are expected to emit by Hawking radiation. (wikipedia.org)
- Caldirola claims the chronon has important implications for quantum mechanics, in particular that it allows for a clear answer to the question of whether a free-falling charged particle does or does not emit radiation. (wikipedia.org)

###### Quarks

- Via quantum theory, protons and neutrons were found to contain quarks - up quarks and down quarks -now considered elementary particles. (wikipedia.org)
- Therefore, one can conclude that most of the visible mass of the universe consists of protons and neutrons, which, like all baryons, in turn consist of up quarks and down quarks. (wikipedia.org)

###### gravity

- Clearly, gravity exerts force on matter comprised of these point particles, so theories that cannot account for that interaction (like Relativity and the Standard Model) are considered incomplete. (rationalwiki.org)
- The transformation of those massive particles was responsible for pushing the metric at their center of gravity, back in "previous times" when the metric was smaller. (sciencechatforum.com)

###### point particles

- In the Standard Model , elementary particles are represented for predictive utility as point particles . (wikipedia.org)

###### quantum mechanics

- Quantum mechanics, on the other hand, explores the effects of fundamental forces on subatomic particles. (phys.org)
- His current research is on the "Planck Aether Hypothesis", "a novel theory that explains both quantum mechanics and the theory of relativity as asymptotic low energy approximations, and gives a spectrum of particles greatly resembling the standard model. (wikipedia.org)

###### fundamental constituents

- According to the theory, the fundamental constituents of reality are strings of the Planck length (about 10−33 cm) that vibrate at resonant frequencies. (wikipedia.org)

###### Proton

- For example, we can make accurate predictions for the complex proton-proton collisions at CERN's Large Hadron Collider, the most powerful man-made particle accelerator. (phys.org)

###### Higgs

- Quantum triviality can be used to bound or predict parameters such as the Higgs boson mass. (wikipedia.org)
- This leads to a predictable Higgs mass in asymptotic safety scenarios. (wikipedia.org)

###### supersymmetric

- Superstring theory is an attempt to explain all of the particles and fundamental forces of nature in one theory by modeling them as vibrations of tiny supersymmetric strings. (wikipedia.org)
- No supersymmetric particles have been discovered and recent research at LHC and Tevatron has excluded some of the ranges. (wikipedia.org)
- For instance, the mass constraint of the Minimal Supersymmetric Standard Model squarks has been up to 1.1 TeV, and gluinos up to 500 GeV. (wikipedia.org)

###### collisions

- Popular concerns have then been raised over end-of-the-world scenarios (see Safety of particle collisions at the Large Hadron Collider). (wikipedia.org)

###### speed of li

- This may approach twice the speed of light, as in the case of two particles travelling at close to the speed of light in opposite directions with respect to the reference frame. (wikipedia.org)

###### black hole's

- they are not a singularity, which the classic view holds to be a zero-dimensional, zero-volume point into which a black hole's entire mass is concentrated. (wikipedia.org)

###### radius

- The quark stabilizes at a radius of 8.8 Planck lengths and acquires a mass of 3.2 MeV, in remarkable agreement with accepted phenomenological values. (csir.co.za)
- For the mass of the Sun this radius is approximately 3 kilometers and for the Earth it is about 9 millimeters. (wikipedia.org)

###### accelerator

- Imagine two fast-moving particles approaching each other from opposite sides of a particle accelerator of the collider type. (wikipedia.org)

###### free charged

- Plasma - A state of matter composed of free charged particles. (universeadventure.org)