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  • mammalian
  • Glycoprotein hormones (or gonadotropins) are protein hormones, that includes the mammalian hormones follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH, also known as follitropin), luteinizing hormone (LH, also known as lutropin), thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH, also known as thyrotropin) and human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG). (ebi.ac.uk)
  • Right now, only two to four percent of mammalian clones are long-term survivors. (readthehook.com)
  • To make a long story short, the problem with mammalian cloning may be that the genes from nuclei from mature cells may have lost their proper imprinting because of aging. (readthehook.com)
  • Circumstantial evidence suggests that ERVs play a role in mammalian reproduction, particularly placental morphogenesis, because intact ERV envelope genes were found to be expressed in the syncytiotrophoblasts of human and mouse placenta and to elicit fusion of cells in vitro . (pnas.org)
  • This work supports the hypothesis that ERVs play fundamental roles in placental morphogenesis and mammalian reproduction. (pnas.org)
  • nearly 20 different mammalian species have now been cloned. (ssr.org)
  • 18 Apr 2012 -An unprecedented study of intra-uterine lactation in the tsetse fly, published today in BOR's Papers-in-Press , reveals that an enzyme found in the fly's milk functions similarly in mammals, making the tsetse a potential model for lipid metabolism during mammalian lactation. (ssr.org)
  • The diversity of placental architectures within and among mammalian orders is believed to be the result of adaptive evolution. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • mice
  • Now, a new study by Rudolf Jaenisch and his colleagues at the Whitehead Institute for Biomedical Research in Cambridge, Massachusetts, shows that the genomes of cloned mice are severely compromised. (genomenewsnetwork.org)
  • The Whitehead researchers created cloned mice from either adult or embryonic stem cells cells derived from the early embryo that have the potential to develop into any cell in the body. (genomenewsnetwork.org)
  • Here, we have generated mice lacking mTIF2/GRIP1 and examined their phenotype with a particular emphasis on reproductive functions. (asm.org)
  • In mice reproductive hyases which play a role in sperm function include Sperm Adhesion Molecule 1 (SPAM 1) and HYAL5, both of which have optimal activity at neutral pH, and HYAL3 which is acidic-active. (udel.edu)
  • placenta
  • This unique relationship is partly due to the peculiar antigen expression in the placenta, culminating in humans with the sole expression of human leucocyte antigen C (HLA‐C) and monomorphic HLA‐G on invading cytotrophoblasts and also many immunoregulatory pathways, with special emphasis presently put on regulatory T cells. (els.net)
  • One of the keys to fetal survival is the peculiar expression of MHC antigens in the placenta, including in human the expression of a nonpolymorphic antigen, HLA‐G, in membrane bound and soluble forms both endowed with immunoregulatory properties. (els.net)
  • Previously, we identified 91 novel lineage-specific transcripts (LSTs) from a cow term-placenta cDNA library, which are excellent candidates for adaptive placental functions acquired by the ruminant lineage. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Female hypofertility is due to a placental hypoplasia that most probably reflects a requirement for maternal TIF2 in decidua stromal cells that face the developing placenta. (asm.org)
  • blastocyst
  • Two major advances in stem cell research occurring in 2013 and 2014 pave the way for eventual mitochondrial replacement therapy: (1) successful cloning of a human to the blastocyst stage of development, and (2) transformation of specialized mouse, somatic cells into totipotent cells. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Early marsupial conceptuses differ markedly from those of eutherian mammals, especially during cleavage and early blastocyst stages of development. (biomedcentral.com)
  • tissue
  • Cloned cells could be used to create replacement tissue for diseased hearts, pancreatic cells for diabetics, treatments for neurodegenerative diseases, such as Parkinson's and Alzheimer's, nerve cells for victims of spinal cord injuries, and skin cells for burn victims. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Rabbit Nox5 was amplified from rabbit tissue, cloned, and sequenced. (frontiersin.org)
  • For example, the adult frog Xenopus has a vigorous immune system with many similarities to mammals, a ubiquitous class I molecule, but a much wider class II tissue distribution than human, mouse and chicken. (tripod.com)
  • tissues
  • Theoretically, tissues generated from cells cloned from a patient's own adult nucleus should not trigger an immune response, but it is possible that subtle differences caused by the foreign cytoplasm in the donor egg might cause a rejection response. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Cell transfection studies and some compensatory overexpression of mTIF2 (the mouse homolog of human TIF2, also known as GRIP1) in certain SRC-1 KO mutant tissues have suggested the existence of a partial functional redundancy between members of the p160 family ( 73 ). (asm.org)
  • MSMB is a disulfide-rich, low molecular weight protein that is a major component of seminal fluid and is strongly expressed in the prostate gland as well as in other tissues, especially of the reproductive system and in mucosal membranes. (biomedcentral.com)
  • In contrast to reproductive tissues, we found no evidence of colinear expression of the Rhox α cluster during thymus development. (deepdyve.com)
  • cows
  • Thus, new technologies to identify nonpregnant dairy cows and heifers early after artificial insemination (AI) may play a key role in management strategies to improve reproductive efficiency and profitability on commercial dairy farms. (extension.org)
  • vitro
  • Eventually animal research may indicate that human cloning can be accomplished with no greater risk than in vitro fertilization posed when Louise Brown, the first "test-tube baby" was born in 1978. (encyclopedia.com)
  • However, considering the case of the natural clones called twins helps us think clearly about what clones produced in vitro would be like. (readthehook.com)
  • Syncytins are fusogenic when expressed in vitro , thereby advancing the hypothesis that they are involved in placental morphogenesis ( 15 - 19 ). (pnas.org)
  • genetic
  • Many of the surviving clones are plagued with serious physiological and genetic problems. (encyclopedia.com)
  • It is not yet known whether clones will develop and age normally, or whether subtle failures in genomic reprogramming or genetic imprinting might lead to various defects. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Clones, who will be twins displaced in time, and who will therefore have very different life experiences, will likely share even fewer similarities with their genetic forebears. (readthehook.com)
  • There is clearly an MHC in amphibians and birds with many characteristics like the MHC of mammals (a single genetic region encoding polymorphic class I and class II molecules) and evidence for polymorphic class I and class II molecules in reptiles. (tripod.com)
  • hormone
  • In mammals the LH receptor is also the receptor for the placental hormone, human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG), so is denominated as a lutropin-choriogonadotropic hormone receptor (LHCG receptor). (ebi.ac.uk)
  • pathways
  • Enhancement of transcriptomic resources for C. fiber will improve understanding of the pathways relevant to proper placental development and successful reproduction. (publish.csiro.au)
  • chorionic gonadotropin
  • New discoveries on the biology and detection of human chorionic gonadotropin. (ebi.ac.uk)
  • Ovarian biopsies and whole ovaries were collected before (0 hours) and up to 36 hours after human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) administration to span the ovulatory interval. (deepdyve.com)
  • prostate cancer
  • Using the LNCaP human prostate cancer progression model, our lab correlated increased secretion of IGFBP-2 with transition of (AS) PCa to (AI) PCa. (udel.edu)
  • survival
  • But because Darwinian selection favors reproductive success rather than individual survival, the protection of the developing fetus takes precedence over the risk of personal suffering and even death in post-reproductive adults. (frontiersin.org)
  • Abstract
  • Bender, Hannah R;Trau, Heidi A;Duffy, Diane M 2018-02-01 00:00:00 Abstract Placental growth factor (PGF) is member of the vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) family of angiogenesis regulators. (deepdyve.com)
  • abortions
  • Beer AE, Quebbeman JF and Semprini AE (1983a) Immunological aspects of recurrent abortions in humans. (els.net)
  • expression
  • Gao H, Yallampalli U, Yallampalli C. Gestational protein restriction reduces expression of Hsd17b2 in rat placental labyrinth. (ssr.org)
  • differ
  • However, many details differ from the mammals, and it is not clear whether these reflect historical accident or selection for different lifestyles or environment. (tripod.com)
  • For example, pig, rat and human relaxins differ in over 50% of amino acid positions. (google.com)
  • hormones
  • These hormones are central to the complex endocrine system that regulates normal growth, sexual development, and reproductive function [ PMID: 6177696 ]. (ebi.ac.uk)
  • whereas
  • We conclude that TIF2 plays a critical role in mouse reproductive functions, whereas previous reports have not revealed serious fertility impairment in SRC-1 −/− or p/CIP −/− mutants. (asm.org)
  • ethical
  • No, the cloning of human beings should not be prohibited because the potential for medical accidents or malfeasance is grossly overstated, and the ethical questions raised by detractors are not unique to cloning-indeed, ethical questions attend every scientific advancement. (encyclopedia.com)
  • But it is hard to see why this age difference might present an ethical problem- or give clones a different moral status. (readthehook.com)
  • scientists
  • However, scientists generally agree that human reproductive cloning should not be permitted before the scientific and technical issues have been clarified. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Many scientists believe that, at least in the near future, experiments in human cloning would involve many failures, miscarriages, stillbirths, and the birth of deformed babies. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Because the meeting serves as an important opportunity to attract new members, the program must have broad appeal that not only meets the needs of our membership but also piques the interest of scientists who do not view themselves as reproductive biologists. (ssr.org)
  • reptiles
  • C. burnetii has a broad host spectrum, which includes birds, reptiles, arthropods and domestic and wild mammals. (beds.ac.uk)
  • emotional
  • The emotional nature of the debate, and the lack of understanding of the scientific aspects of the subject, is epitomized by House Majority Whip Tom Delay (R-Texas) who declared: "Human beings should not be cloned to stock a medical junkyard of spare parts. (encyclopedia.com)
  • On the other hand, the considerable emotional and financial investment that the parents of cloned children will be making indicates that these children will be very much wanted and treasured by their families. (readthehook.com)
  • found
  • MHC loci do not always exist in a single tightly linked cluster as they do in mammals, but can be found in two (e.g., chicken 9 ) or multiple (e.g., zebrafish 10 ) clusters. (tripod.com)
  • The HLA-C locus has been found only in humans, gorilla and chimpanzees but not in monkeys 17 . (tripod.com)
  • often
  • One moral objection often heard is that cloned children would be not ends in themselves, but would be means for their parents' self-aggrandizement (not to mention the means of aggrandizement for Raelian beliefs). (readthehook.com)
  • Though the panda is often assumed to be docile, it has been known to attack humans, presumably out of irritation rather than predation. (absoluteastronomy.com)
  • a region of DNA with a high concentration of CpG sequences that often associate with gene promoters in humans. (udel.edu)