Loading...
  • somatic
  • Thus, in the past five years, much of the scientific and ethical debate about somatic cell nuclear transfer has focused on its two potential applications: 1) for reproductive purposes, i.e., to produce a child, or 2) for producing a source of ES cells for research. (stemcellclinic.net)
  • And, scientists in Tokyo have shown that cloned mice die significantly earlier than those that are naturally conceived, raising an additional concern that the mutations that accumulate in somatic cells might affect nuclear transfer efficiency and lead to cancer and other diseases in offspring. (stemcellclinic.net)
  • The authors conclude that although in this early phase of research no direct evidence can be provided about the practical use of transgenic pigs produced by somatic cell nuclear transfer as organ donors or disease models, the future chances even in medium term are good, and at least proportional with the efforts and sums that are invested into this research area worldwide. (publish.csiro.au)
  • The Human Cloning Prohibition Act outlaws the process known as somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) using human cells. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Infigen Inc. last week lost a bid to upset patents held by Advanced Cell Technology (ACT) for use of "proliferating somatic cells for the cloning of non-human animals. (beds.ac.uk)
  • cows
  • This firm is working on genetically educating cows to make human antibodies (see #1 in the bibliography ) in their milk. (whyfiles.org)
  • Meat from cloned cows could soon appear on your dinner plate. (whyfiles.org)
  • If we were to be able to clone cows it would mean that we would not have a loss of meat production. (probe.org)
  • Cloning cows is more expensive than normal reproduction. (probe.org)
  • WASHINGTON -- Cloned cows that reach adulthood show no unusual signs of physical problems, according to a study that could have significance for the medical and commercial uses of cloning. (semissourian.com)
  • Their immune systems were normal, they exhibited puberty at the expected age and two of the cloned cows gave birth to calves that appeared normal in all respects. (semissourian.com)
  • mice
  • They cloned mice using cumulus cells, a cell type found in the ovaries. (dnalc.org)
  • First, the cells used to clone the mice were not grown in culture, but instead were used immediately. (dnalc.org)
  • They have successfully made several generations of clones and all mice seem normal. (dnalc.org)
  • Now, a new study by Rudolf Jaenisch and his colleagues at the Whitehead Institute for Biomedical Research in Cambridge, Massachusetts, shows that the genomes of cloned mice are severely compromised. (genomenewsnetwork.org)
  • Using DNA microarray technology, the team analyzed more than 10,000 genes from liver and placenta cells in cloned mice and found that up to four percent of the genes do not function normally. (genomenewsnetwork.org)
  • Using a special technique called DNA microarray analysis, in which large numbers of genes are examined on a gene chip, the researchers were able to measure the functioning of more than 10,000 genes in cells from cloned mice. (genomenewsnetwork.org)
  • The good tidings were tempered, however, by residual yuckiness from a 2013 experiment, led by Steven Goldman at the University of Rochester Medical Centre, New York, that found mice embryos injected with human brain cells turned out significantly smarter. (cosmosmagazine.com)
  • Randy Prather, distinguished professor in reproductive biotechnology in MU's College of Agriculture, Food and Natural Resources, said mice previously had been bred with the disease. (columbiatribune.com)
  • Although they allowed scientists to study the gene that causes cystic fibrosis, the mice didn't have any of the symptoms experienced by humans with the disease, such as intestinal blockages and liver lesions. (columbiatribune.com)
  • goats
  • After years of detailed study and analysis, the Food and Drug Administration has concluded that meat and milk from clones of cattle, swine (pigs), and goats, and the offspring of clones from any species traditionally consumed as food, are as safe to eat as food from conventionally bred animals. (fda.gov)
  • Geron licenses the nuclear transfer technology it bought from the Roslin Institute in Scotland to Canadian researchers working on transgenic goats and to Australian scientists working to clone prize dairy bulls, among others. (beds.ac.uk)
  • 1996
  • Prior to 1996, it was thought that cloning an entire animal could only be done with embryonic cells - cells present in the early stages of an organism's development. (dnalc.org)
  • 2001
  • Antinori's colleague, Panos Zavos at the Andrology Institute of America in Lexington, Kentucky, had previously announced that the pair planned to clone a baby by the end of 2001. (newscientist.com)
  • In November 2001, biotech company Advanced Cell Technology in Massachusetts, published a much-criticised study detailing the creation of three cloned human embryos of just six cells each. (newscientist.com)
  • Drögemüller C, Hamann H, Distl O (2001) Candidate gene markers for litter size in different German pig lines. (edu.pl)
  • After a heated debate about human cloning, on July 31, 2001, the U. S. House of Representatives voted 265-162 to institute a total federal ban on human cloning. (encyclopedia.com)
  • When the editors of Time screamed on the cover of their February 19, 2001 issue, "Human Cloning is Closer than You Think! (apologeticspress.org)
  • When it became apparent in 2001 that cloning could become a commercial venture to help improve the quality of herds, FDA's Center for Veterinary Medicine (CVM) asked livestock producers to voluntarily keep food from clones and their offspring out of the food chain until CVM could further evaluate the issue. (fda.gov)
  • We keep moving forward, and we think we're protected," said Randall S. Prather , the University of Missouri-Columbia professor of reproductive biotechnology who led a research team that, in 2001, announced the first successful clone of a miniature swine genetically engineered for animal-to-human transplantation. (beds.ac.uk)
  • Researchers
  • Researchers, as well as leaders of biotechnology and pharmaceutical companies, believe that therapeutic cloning will result in major medical breakthroughs. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Researchers have developed improved and safer cloning techniques that have resulted in normal births of healthy animal clones, and we are now applying this technology to a variety of applications. (bio.org)
  • Prominent researchers have been arguing that cloning animals and humans in particular is risky business. (genomenewsnetwork.org)
  • Researchers can now begin to study the disease progression as it is happening, something not possible in humans," Iowa researcher David Meyerholz said in a University of Iowa news release. (columbiatribune.com)
  • stem cells
  • The purpose of this research is to produce early clones for the extraction of stem cells, for medical treatments. (newscientist.com)
  • Now, with reports arriving almost daily about proposals to clone humans, and with similar reports surfacing with disturbing frequency about scientists' planned use of human-derived stem cells, I believe that an in-depth analysis of these two subjects is both timely and warranted. (apologeticspress.org)
  • While stem cells are extraordinarily important in early human development, multipotent stem cells are also found in children and adults. (thailabonline.com)
  • The only known sources of pluripotent stem cells are those isolated and cultured from early human embryos and from fetal tissue that was destined to be part of the gonads. (chicagotribune.com)
  • But these multipotent stem cells are rare in humans. (chicagotribune.com)
  • In January 2017 a team led by Juan Carlos Izpisua Belmonte, at the Salk Institute in California, announced it had introduced human stem cells into pig embryos. (cosmosmagazine.com)
  • identical
  • When a couple has identical twins (or identical triplets, etc.), the children are clones of one another. (dnalc.org)
  • But even if humans could be cloned, they would not necessarily be identical, according to Grebe who noted that human twins may appear to be exactly alike, but have distinct personalities. (cnn.com)
  • In reality, due to low efficiencies and the high costs of cloning domestic species, only a limited number of identical individuals are generally produced, and these clones are primarily used as breed stock. (pnas.org)
  • Identical twins are the obvious examples, but perhaps more intriguing are armadillos, in which the offspring in a litter are all clones derived from one zygote ( 9 ). (pnas.org)
  • Cloning to preserve endangered species is counter-productive since cloning produces genetically identical organisms. (probe.org)
  • Animal cloning is an assisted reproductive technology that allows livestock breeders and farmers to produce identical twins of their best animals. (bio.org)
  • Also, identical twins are clones of each other. (britannica.com)
  • Reproductive cloning is the creation of offspring that are identical to an original animal. (britannica.com)
  • The carboxy terminal 15 amino acids derived from the partial porcine TEGT cDNA are identical with the carboxy terminal 15 amino acids of the human TEGT (GenBank accession no. (usda.gov)
  • In fact, identical twins develop when two totipotent cells separate and develop into two individual, genetically identical human beings. (thailabonline.com)
  • To clone is simply to produce an identical copy of something. (customtermpapers.org)
  • This "clone" will not be completely identical to the parent. (customtermpapers.org)
  • cells
  • She is a clone of these udder cells. (dnalc.org)
  • The scientists have taken cells from Cumulina to make more clones. (dnalc.org)
  • Several important concerns remain about the science and safety of nuclear transfer cloning using adult cells as the source of nuclei. (stemcellclinic.net)
  • Theoretically, tissues generated from cells cloned from a patient's own adult nucleus should not trigger an immune response, but it is possible that subtle differences caused by the foreign cytoplasm in the donor egg might cause a rejection response. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Cloned cells could be used to create replacement tissue for diseased hearts, pancreatic cells for diabetics, treatments for neurodegenerative diseases, such as Parkinson's and Alzheimer's, nerve cells for victims of spinal cord injuries, and skin cells for burn victims. (encyclopedia.com)
  • First, human granulosa cells were placed in enucleated bovine oocytes, electrostimulated, and shown to develop at least as often as occurs in parthenogenesis. (zavos.org)
  • Dr. Robert Lanza of Advanced Cell Technology of Worcester, Mass., one of the participants in the study, said it was the first to study the health of cloned animals well into adulthood, and was the best evidence yet showing that cloned animals can produce healthy and functional cells. (semissourian.com)
  • The many cells within plants and animals -except the reproductive cells (eggs and sperm)-are clones of older cells. (britannica.com)
  • The goal is to produce healthy new cells by cloning a patient's own cells. (britannica.com)
  • Scientists think that cloned cells might be used to treat Alzheimer's disease , spinal cord injuries, and other serious conditions. (britannica.com)
  • However, many people object to the way the cloned cells would be produced. (britannica.com)
  • The inner cell mass cells will go on to form virtually all of the tissues of the human body. (thailabonline.com)
  • Although the inner cell mass cells can form virtually every type of cell found in the human body, they cannot form an organism because they are unable to give rise to the placenta and supporting tissues necessary for development in the human uterus. (thailabonline.com)
  • But an international group of scientists announced in the June 6 Cell -a prominent, peer-reviewed scientific journal-that they created scores of cloned human embryos, developing four of them in a dish for about 10 days to the blastocyst stage (about 150-200 cells). (lifelegaldefensefoundation.org)
  • A real ban would make it illegal to use human cells and nuclei in SCNT. (lifelegaldefensefoundation.org)
  • The puppies, she said, were cloned from cells taken from "Sammie's" mouth and stomach by ViaGen Pets, a pet-cloning company based in Texas that charges $50,000 for the service. (vanityfair.com)
  • Dr. Ned First (U.S.) clones calves from cells of early embryos. (infoplease.com)
  • Dr. Xiangzhong Yang leads a U.S. experiment to clone calves from frozen cells taken from a Japanese bull. (infoplease.com)
  • The experiment is successful and proves that cells can be stored for later cloning. (infoplease.com)
  • The camel, Injaz, ia cloned from the ovarian cells of a dead camel. (infoplease.com)
  • However, Megan Munsie, of the Centre for Stem Cell Systems at the University of Melbourne, points out the law only bans putting animal cells into human embryos. (cosmosmagazine.com)
  • copies
  • Clones may allow farmers to upgrade the quality of their herds by providing more copies of their best animals-those with naturally occurring desirable traits, such as resistance to disease, high milk production, or quality meat production. (fda.gov)
  • biotechnology
  • One of the prospects should not be, perhaps should never be, the extension of this technique to human beings," said Carl Felbaum , president of the Biotechnology Industry Organization, in an interview with CNN. (cnn.com)
  • In the field of biotechnology, however, cloning is a complex term referring to one of three different processes. (customtermpapers.org)
  • sperm
  • Yet, how definitive for humans could be evidence derived from rhesus monkeys, a species differing from humans with respect to oocyte size, form of implantation, and perhaps also response to micromanipulation procedures such as intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI)? (zavos.org)
  • Sperm production is an important reproductive trait for swine industry. (usda.gov)
  • Human development begins when a sperm fertilizes an egg and creates a single cell that has the potential to form an entire organism. (thailabonline.com)
  • 2002
  • In 2002, a bizarre sect of spaceship-worshipping Raelians claimed that "Baby Eve," the clone, had already been born. (whyfiles.org)
  • surrogate
  • On May 18, 2010, Got, the cloned calf is born through a surrogate Swiss milk cow and is an exact replica of his father. (infoplease.com)
  • Severino Antinori
  • A woman taking part in a controversial human cloning programme is eight weeks pregnant, claims Severino Antinori, one of the two controversial fertility specialists leading the effort. (newscientist.com)
  • Cloning pregnancy claim prompts outrage Updated 17:25 05 April 02 NewScientist.com news service A woman taking part in a controversial human cloning programme is eight weeks pregnant, claims Severino Antinori, one of the two controversial fertility specialists leading the effort. (bioeticaweb.com)
  • animals
  • Cloned animals can be used to create human antibodies. (whyfiles.org)
  • The head of the research team that produced Snuppy, South Korean Professor Hwang Woo-Suk, told a news conference the point of cloning dogs is to advance our understanding of diseases that affect humans and animals. (rferl.org)
  • Our research goal is to produce cloned dogs for studying the disease models, not only for humans, but also for animals,' Hwang said. (rferl.org)
  • Many cloned animals die in utero, even at late stages or soon after birth, and those that survive frequently exhibit severe birth defects. (stemcellclinic.net)
  • However, as the result of unfortunate coincidence of known and unknown factors, porcine embryology had been a handicapped branch of reproductive research in domestic animals and a very intensive and focused research was required to eliminate or minimise this handicap. (publish.csiro.au)
  • Although scientists at Duke University suggested that human clones might not experience the problems encountered in cloned animals, the risks remains very high and quite unpredictable. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Cloning will also tackle the challenge of the extinction of wild animals like the giant panda. (bio.org)
  • Only a small percentage of cloned animals survive to birth, and those that do are usually subject to a host of health problems including obesity, frequent bouts of pneumonia, and liver failure. (genomenewsnetwork.org)
  • Commercially, cloning could be used to breed animals that are free from disease, Lanza said. (semissourian.com)
  • The cloning of animals, however, was not developed until the 1900s. (britannica.com)
  • His experiment is repeated by other scientists who clone a variety of animals. (infoplease.com)
  • For more than five years, CVM scientists studied hundreds of published reports and other detailed information on clones of livestock animals to evaluate the safety of food from these animals. (fda.gov)
  • FDA has found no science-based reason to require labels to distinguish between products from clones and products from conventionally produced animals. (fda.gov)
  • There were common themes: scientists would be creating monsters and generally blurring the line between human and non-human animals. (cosmosmagazine.com)
  • Older animals are used for beef when they are past their reproductive prime. (thefullwiki.org)
  • transplantation
  • In 2007, Senators Dianne Feinstein (D-Calif.) and Orrin Hatch (R-Utah) coauthored the Human Cloning Ban and Stem Cell Protection Bill, which not only would not have banned human cloning, it would have legalized it by codifying an inaccurate definition: "The term 'human cloning' means implanting or attempting to implant the product of nuclear transplantation into a uterus or the functional equivalent of a uterus. (lifelegaldefensefoundation.org)
  • diseases
  • Dogs share many of the same diseases as humans. (rferl.org)
  • And dogs have been used as models of those human diseases for quite some time. (rferl.org)
  • All these diseases that we humans also get, wouldn't it be a marvelous thing that our best friends would be the first beneficiaries of stem-cell medicine, and in learning whether it is safe and effective in our [pets], we could know whether it is safe and effective for our loved ones? (rferl.org)
  • beings
  • Since then the debate on applying the technique to clone human beings has been ongoing. (dnalc.org)
  • Yes, because of the potential physical dangers and the profound ethical dilemmas it poses, the cloning of human beings should be prohibited. (encyclopedia.com)
  • No, the cloning of human beings should not be prohibited because the potential for medical accidents or malfeasance is grossly overstated, and the ethical questions raised by detractors are not unique to cloning-indeed, ethical questions attend every scientific advancement. (encyclopedia.com)
  • The emotional nature of the debate, and the lack of understanding of the scientific aspects of the subject, is epitomized by House Majority Whip Tom Delay (R-Texas) who declared: "Human beings should not be cloned to stock a medical junkyard of spare parts. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Some scientists have experimented with cloning human beings. (britannica.com)
  • The successful cloning of human beings-whether for research or birth-is momentous: Even if the technique is used only in pursuit of biological knowledge and medical treatments, those will come at the very high ethical price of manufacturing human life for the purpose of harvesting it like a corn crop-that is, for the purpose of destroying it. (lifelegaldefensefoundation.org)
  • research
  • While some scientists hail the cloning as a major breakthrough for research in agriculture, aging, medicine and genetics, others worry what it may portend. (cnn.com)
  • EDITOR'S NOTE: Two of the most hotly debated and currently controversial topics-in the fields of science, religion, ethics, and politics-are human cloning and stem-cell research. (apologeticspress.org)
  • Recent published reports on the isolation and successful culturing of the first human pluripotent stem cell lines have generated great excitement and have brought biomedical research to the edge of a new frontier. (thailabonline.com)
  • Before that time federal government funding for chimera research had been available so long as primate (including human) embryos weren't used. (cosmosmagazine.com)
  • Prather said the first pigs with the disease were born earlier this year and have been sent to the Iowa research team. (columbiatribune.com)
  • ethicists
  • These scary headlines, even more than the curious crowd who crowed about commencing cloning, raised big questions among scientists, ethicists, and just about everybody else: Even if it proves possible to clone humans for reproduction, is it wise, ethical and safe? (whyfiles.org)
  • eggs
  • The scientists are hoping that they will be able to do the same thing with human eggs in the near future in order to help women who are facing infertility. (steadyhealth.com)