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  • catabolism
  • These data demonstrate the involvement of a mitochondrial protein, ETFQO, in the catabolism of Leu and potentially of other amino acids in higher plants and also imply a novel role for this protein in the chlorophyll degradation pathway activated during dark-induced senescence and sugar starvation. (plantcell.org)
  • The mammalian mitochondrial proteins, ETF and ETFQO, are essential for the catabolism of fatty acids, several amino acids, and choline and are important in supplying mitochondria with respiratory substrates auxiliary to those derived from sucrose. (plantcell.org)
  • unclear
  • Though NOX system has been extensively investigated and reported for its modulation by various vasoactive molecules such as angiotensin-II, PDGF and cytokines [ 20 - 22 ], it has remained unclear if phytanic acid, a biomolecule linked with severe cellular pathology in peroxisomal disease, has any influence on superoxide anion production by NOX. (biomedcentral.com)
  • dicarboxylic acids
  • Hexanoic, octanoic and decanoic acids were converted to C6-, C6-C8- and C6-C10-dicarboxylic acids, respectively, in fed and 72-h-starved rats. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Lauric acid was converted to C6-C8-dicarboxylic acids in starved rats but not in unstarved rats. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Decanoic and lauric acids were converted to relatively high amounts of C6-C8-dicarboxylic acids compared with myristic acid in myristic acid in ketotic diabetic rats, while radioactivity from [1-14C]-and [16-(14)] palmitic acid was not incorporated into C6-C8-dicarboxylic acids in diabetic ketotic rats. (biomedsearch.com)
  • An in vitro production of C12-C16-dicarboxylic acids was detected in all assays ()including control assays), probably formed from"endogenous' monocarboxylic acids preexistent in the homogenate. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Ths "endogenous' production of dicarboxylic acids was inhibited by C10-C16-monocarboxylic acids, where palmitic acid had the strongest effect. (biomedsearch.com)
  • chlorophyll
  • Phytanic acid (PA) is a chlorophyll metabolite with potentials in regulating glucose metabolism, as it is a natural ligand of the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) that is known to regulate hepatic glucose homeostasis. (beds.ac.uk)
  • He showed, for example, that in cows fed grass silage the phytanic acid found in their plasma lipids originates from chlorophyll. (wikipedia.org)
  • intake
  • It can be treated by dietary elimination of pristanic and phytanic acid through reduced intake of dairy products and meats such as beef, lamb, and chicken. (wikipedia.org)
  • Bile
  • The malabsorption resulting from lack of bile acid has resulted in elemental formula being suggested, which are low in fat with (wikipedia.org)
  • diet
  • Intensively finishing cattle on a high-grain diet is generally used to enhance marbling, whereas extensively finishing on grass is known to provide improved muscle fatty acid profiles. (cambridge.org)
  • plasma
  • [ 13 ] Furthermore, patients with this disorder have low levels of certain polyunsaturated fatty acids in plasma, which can contribute to the cutaneous and neurologic disease in Sjögren-Larsson syndrome. (medscape.com)
  • Amino
  • IDH1 mutations are heterozygous, typically involving an amino acid substitution in the active site of the enzyme in codon 132. (wikipedia.org)
  • synthesis
  • Since docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) synthesis is impaired , DHA supplementation was recommended, but a placebo-controlled study has since showed no clinical efficacy. (wikipedia.org)
  • terpenoid
  • Freshwater sponges contain terpenoid acids such as 4,8,12-trimethyltridecanoic, phytanic and pristanic acids, which indicates that these acids may have chemotaxonomical significance for both marine and freshwater sponges. (wikipedia.org)
  • amounts
  • Decanoic and lauric acids were found in amounts of 7.6-9.1 and 85.9-137.5 micrometers/100 mg tissue, respectively, whereas the amounts of hexanoic and octanoic acids were negligible. (biomedsearch.com)
  • compounds
  • These sac-like compartments contain enzymes that process many different substances, such as fatty acids and certain toxic compounds. (nih.gov)
  • adipose
  • C6-C12-monocarboxylic acids in hydrolysed rat adipose tissue wee determined by gas-liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (selected ion monitoring). (biomedsearch.com)
  • chain
  • It is hypothesised that phytanic acid, a C20 branched-chain fatty acid found predominantly in foods from ruminant animals, may be involved in early cancer development because it has been shown to up regulate activity of alpha-methylacyl-coenzyme A racemase, an enzyme commonly found to be over-expressed in tumour cells compared with normal tissue. (ox.ac.uk)
  • Increasing the finishing time on concentrate significantly increased the saturated and monounsaturated fatty acids, whereas polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) tended to decrease and it was not possible to increase the long-chain PUFA content in muscle tissue of this breed. (cambridge.org)
  • His recent work on branched chain fatty acids is particularly noteworthy. (wikipedia.org)
  • He then went on to discover other novel branched-chain acids in sheep fed carbohydrate-rich diets. (wikipedia.org)
  • enzyme
  • The enzyme is also involved in a chiral inversion pathway which converts ibuprofen, a member of the 2-arylpropionic acid (2-APA) non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug family (NSAIDs), from the R-enantiomer to the S-enantiomer. (wikipedia.org)
  • tissues
  • Thereafter the glucose that is released into the blood by the liver for general use by the body tissues, has to be synthesized from the glucogenic amino acids and a few other gluconeogenic substrates, which do not include fatty acids. (wikipedia.org)
  • metabolism
  • His candidature citation read: "Distinguished for his careful, thorough and imaginative studies on digestion, absorption and metabolism of fatty acids, particularly in ruminants. (wikipedia.org)
  • pathway
  • The enzyme is also involved in a chiral inversion pathway which converts ibuprofen, a member of the 2-arylpropionic acid (2-APA) non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug family (NSAIDs), from the R-enantiomer to the S-enantiomer. (wikipedia.org)
  • Most of the acetyl-CoA which is converted into fatty acids is derived from carbohydrates via the glycolytic pathway. (wikipedia.org)
  • The glycolytic pathway also provides the glycerol with which three fatty acids can combine (by means of ester bonds) to form triglycerides (also known as "triacylglycerols", to distinguish them from fatty "acids" - or simply as "fat"), the final product of the lipogenic process. (wikipedia.org)
  • substrates
  • The structure provided an explanation on why CYP268A2 shows a preference for shorter substrates over the longer chain fatty acids which bind to CYP124A1 and the selective nature of the catalysed monooxygenase activity. (biochemj.org)
  • amino acid
  • ACTH is a 39 amino acid peptide hormone which is secreted by the pituitary gland to regulate production of steroid hormones by the adrenal cortex. (imperial.nhs.uk)
  • IDH1 mutations are heterozygous, typically involving an amino acid substitution in the active site of the enzyme in codon 132. (wikipedia.org)
  • undergo
  • Once a 16:0 carbon fatty acid has been formed, it can undergo a number of modifications, resulting in desaturation and/or elongation. (wikipedia.org)
  • identification
  • R. P. Hansen, J. D. Morrison, The isolation and identification of 2,6,10,14-tetramethylpentadecanoic acid from butterfat, Biochemical Journal 1964 Nov;93(2):225-8. (wikipedia.org)
  • found
  • The diagrams presented show how fatty acids are synthesized in microorganisms and list the enzymes found in Escherichia coli. (wikipedia.org)
  • obtain
  • To obtain cytosolic acetyl-CoA, citrate (produced by the condensation of acetyl CoA with oxaloacetate) is removed from the citric acid cycle and carried across the inner mitochondrial membrane into the cytosol. (wikipedia.org)