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  • biochemical
  • New phylogenetically based analytical methods were then rapidly developed, incorporated into `the comparative method', and applied to many physiological, biochemical, morphological and behavioral investigations. (biologists.org)
  • organisms
  • Aside from providing readers with a comparative vista of reproductive physiology from a unique perspective, it introduces a new hypothesis on the overproduction of gametes commonly found in living organisms - a hypothesis which may have far-reaching consequences for the interpretation of the reproductive process. (elsevier.com)
  • Outcome 1: To understand the principles of how organisms work at the molecular, cellular, and systems levels, how these principles are based on the rules of physics and chemistry, and how the processes of physiology at one level emerge from processes at the lower levels. (cornell.edu)
  • Outcome 3: To appreciate the similarities and differences between the physiologies of humans and other organisms, and so to appreciate how the study of comparative physiology is relevant to understanding your own life, and to understanding how evolution explains both the unity and diversity of life. (cornell.edu)
  • fishes
  • The third study on the endocrine functions of the hypothalamus in the fishes, amphibians, and reptiles provides the comparative endocrinologist with a basis for integrating the state of knowledge on non-mammalian and mammalian function of this organ complex. (elsevier.com)
  • evolution
  • Comparative methods have been radically restructured over the past two decades, and now routinely incorporate both phylogenetic information and explicit models of character evolution. (biologists.org)
  • To expand on some of these points, `quality' in point 2 includes the simple fact that adding an independent estimate of phylogenetic relationships to a comparative analysis increases - often greatly - the amount of basic data that is brought to bear on a given question, whereas `type' refers to analyses that are simply impossible without a phylogenetic perspective, such as reconstructing ancestral values or comparing rates of evolution among lineages. (biologists.org)
  • studies
  • We now review the rationale for including phylogenetic information in comparative studies and briefly discuss three methods for doing this (independent contrasts, generalized least-squares models, and Monte Carlo computer simulations). (biologists.org)
  • We discuss when and how to use phylogenetic information in comparative studies and provide several examples in which it has been helpful, or even crucial, to a comparative analysis. (biologists.org)
  • It is our personal opinion that the incorporation of phylogeny information into comparative studies has been highly beneficial, not only because it can improve the reliability of statistical inferences, but also because it continually emphasizes the potential importance of past evolutionary history in determining current form and function. (biologists.org)
  • different
  • The need to maintain optimal metabolic flux within the muscle is of such great importance that it is the most plastic aspect of muscle physiology-muscles have the ability to adopt different metabolic profiles depending on the type of exercise they are most frequently called upon to perform. (physiology.org)