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  • Minor
  • RESULTS: In this study we show that the homeodomain transcription factor Vsx2 is initially expressed throughout the retinal epithelium, but later it is downregulated in all but a minor population of bipolar cells and all Muller glia. (zfin.org)
  • membrane
  • Two hemichannels, joined together across a cell membrane comprise a Gap Junction channel. (wikipedia.org)
  • In foveal and perifoveal scans, band 1 was thick relative to the anatomical external limiting membrane, band 2 aligned with the outer one-third of the anatomical IS ellipsoid, and band 3 (IZ, interdigitation of retinal pigment epithelium and photoreceptors) was cleanly delineated. (arvojournals.org)
  • Mn 2+ is known to be able to permeate into cells via SOCE while it is impervious to the surface membrane extrusion processes or to ER uptake by Ca 2+ pumps due to its very high affinity with Fura-2. (jove.com)
  • apoptotic
  • Moreover, recent studies have implicated changes in photoreceptor pH i in dysfunctional Ca 2+ homeostasis and photoreceptor degeneration ( 10 , 83 ), further underscoring the need to understand pH i -[Ca 2+ ] i interactions in the inner segment where the apoptotic machinery is localized. (physiology.org)
  • Macrophage and retinal pigment epithelium phagocytosis: apoptotic cells and photoreceptors compete for alphavbeta3 and alphavbeta5 integrins, and protein kinase C regulates alphavbeta5 binding and cytoskeletal linkage. (nih.gov)
  • Noninflammatory monocyte macrophages use alphavbeta3 integrin to selectively bind apoptotic cells, initiating their phagocytic removal. (nih.gov)
  • Here, we show that apoptotic cells and OS compete for binding to these receptors, indicating that OS and apoptotic cells expose surface signals recognizable by alphavbeta3 and alphavbeta5. (nih.gov)
  • Hypothesis 2, applicable to macrophages, was that their preferred use of αvβ3 for apoptotic cell or OS binding might be based on the faster early kinetics of this pathway over αvβ5-mediated uptake (Fig. 2 a). (nih.gov)
  • TNFα expression initially increased in apoptotic photoreceptors and later in Müller glia. (zfin.org)
  • homeostasis
  • We have used optical imaging and whole-cell voltage clamp to measure the contribution of store-operated Ca(2+) entry (SOCE) to Ca(2+) homeostasis and its role in regulation of neurotransmission at cone synapses. (jove.com)
  • apical
  • Top and bottom panels shown are en face views of the apical and the attached cell surface, respectively. (nih.gov)
  • rhodopsin
  • Intravitreal administration of adenosine triphosphate (ATP) has recently been found to induce acute photoreceptor death.ATP caused significant loss of visual function within 1 day and loss of 50% of the photoreceptors within 1 week.These extreme changes were also observed in the 2-year-old P23H rhodopsin transgenic rat model of retinitis pigmentosa. (nih.gov)
  • freshly
  • Similarly, the addition of exogenous VEGF to freshly isolated photoreceptor cells and outer-nuclear-layer explants demonstrated VEGF to be highly neuroprotective. (nih.gov)
  • Cultured human retinoblastoma tumorspheres of low passage or cells obtained from freshly harvested human retinoblastoma tumors injected directly into the vitreous cavity of murine eyes form tumors within 2-4 weeks. (jove.com)
  • signals
  • Despite the known susceptibility of intracellular Ca 2+ signals to endogenous protons, little is known about proton-Ca 2+ interactions in photoreceptor cytosol. (physiology.org)
  • β3 and αvβ5 are present on both surfaces, as demonstrated by the immunofluorescence signals in horizontal optical sections at the levels of attached (a1 and a3) and free (a2 and a4) cell surfaces. (nih.gov)
  • transcription factors
  • During retinal development, the expression of a few key transcription factors regulates photoreceptor cell fate and further specification into rod and cone photoreceptors. (arvojournals.org)
  • Subsequently, Müller glia increase expression of the Achaete-scute complex-like 1a (Ascl1a) and Signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (Stat3) transcription factors and re-enter the cell cycle to yield undifferentiated neuronal progenitors that continue to proliferate, migrate to the outer nuclear layer, and differentiate into photoreceptors. (zfin.org)
  • adult
  • Gap junctions occur in virtually all tissues of the body, with the exception of adult fully developed skeletal muscle and mobile cell types such as sperm or erythrocytes . (wikipedia.org)
  • However, a growing body of evidence indicates that VEGF also acts on non-vascular cells, both developmentally as well as in the adult. (nih.gov)
  • physiological function
  • However, the heterogeneity of SOCE characteristics in different cell types and the physiological function are still not clear 5-7 . (jove.com)
  • This process, which is essential for the physiological function of phagocytic cells by endowing phagosomes with their lytic and bactericidal properties, culminates in fusion of phagosomes with lysosomes and biogenesis of phagolysosomes which is considered to be the last and critical stage of maturation for phagosomes. (jove.com)
  • Major
  • Phagocytic cells play a major role in the innate immune system by removing and eliminating invading microorganisms in their phagosomes. (jove.com)
  • expression
  • 11 Conversely, overexpression of Nrl in cone precursors results in decreased cone gene expression and a transformation to rod photoreceptors. (arvojournals.org)
  • siRNA-based suppression of VEGF expression in a Müller cell line in vitro supports the existence of an autocrine role for VEGF in Müller cell survival. (nih.gov)
  • Expression of the Endothelin-2 (Edn2) mRNA is greatly increased in the photoreceptors (PRs) of mouse models of inherited PR degeneration (IPD). (nih.gov)
  • Morpholino-mediated knockdown of TNFα expression before light damage diminished the expression of both Ascl1a and Stat3 in Müller glia and significantly reduced the number of proliferating Müller glia without affecting photoreceptor cell death. (zfin.org)
  • Knockdown of TNFα expression in the Müller glia resulted in fewer proliferating Müller glia, suggesting that Müller glial-derived TNFα recruited additional Müller glia to re-enter the cell cycle. (zfin.org)
  • light
  • Continuous acid loading can have marked consequences for photoreceptor light sensitivity and output ( 31 - 32 , 45 , 77 ). (physiology.org)
  • Our working hypothesis was that the actions of PBM and saffron in protecting retinal photoreceptors, in a rat light damage model, would be additive. (nih.gov)
  • Impact of single and combined neuroprotectants on GFAP labelling of Müller cells.A-E: Representative GFAP labelling in control (A), light damage (B), 7 d PBM (C), 10 d saffron (D) and combined treatment (E) groups, 1 w after light damage. (nih.gov)
  • In all treated groups, the length of Müller cells expressing GFAP was less than in the light damage group. (nih.gov)
  • differentiation
  • Differentiation and activation of osteoclasts play a key role in the development of musculoskeletal diseases as these cells are primarily involved in bone resorption. (jove.com)
  • Osteoclasts can be generated in vitro from monocyte/macrophage precursor cells in the presence of certain cytokines, which promote survival and differentiation. (jove.com)
  • mechanism
  • Store operated Ca 2+ entry (SOCE), earlier termed capacitative Ca 2+ entry, is a tightly regulated mechanism for influx of extracellular Ca 2+ into cells to replenish depleted endoplasmic reticulum (ER) or sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) Ca 2+ stores 1,2 . (jove.com)
  • macrophages
  • PKC-activated alphavbeta5-mediated binding in macrophages differed from constitutive binding to the same integrin receptor in RPE cells in that the former followed much faster kinetics, similar to particle binding mediated by alphavbeta3. (nih.gov)
  • vitro
  • Similarly, in vitro culturing protocols for producing osteoclasts from human precursor cells in the presence of specific cytokines enables scientists to study osteoclastogenesis in human cells for translational applications. (jove.com)
  • population
  • Ratiometric measurement and the Mn +2 quenching assays can be performed on a cuvette-based spectrofluorometer in a cell population mode or in a microscope-based system to visualize single cells. (jove.com)
  • genetically
  • The advantage of single cell measurements is that individual cells subjected to gene manipulations can be selected using GFP or RFP reporters, allowing studies in genetically modified or mutated cells. (jove.com)
  • Biology
  • Demonstration that cultured cells have the capability of forming new tumors is important to ensure that cultured cells model the biology of the original tumor. (jove.com)