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  • Furthermore
  • Furthermore, the respective roles of the different functional domains of CD4 in regulating synapse formation remains poorly understood. (jimmunol.org)
  • Furthermore, the EPAC-Rap1 pathway continues to be reported to inhibit inflammatory signaling procedures in vascular endothelial cells by marketing the induction from the (suppressor of cytokine signaling 3) gene, thus restricting pro-inflammatory cytokine signaling (7). (bioinf.org)
  • Furthermore, SOCS-3 can focus on Src homology 2 domain-bound companions for connections with an elongin B/C-Cul5-Rbx1 complicated and linked ubiquitin-protein isopeptide ligase activity thus directing them for proteasomal degradation (9). (bioinf.org)
  • Alzheimer's
  • The proinflammatory cytokine tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α) is up-regulated during inflammatory diseases of the central nervous system (CNS), including multiple sclerosis ( 1 ), the AIDS-dementia complex ( 2 ), and Alzheimer's disease ( 3 ). (pnas.org)
  • lipid
  • Several recent studies have detailed the molecular components both of lipid raft domains and of the immunological synapse and have elegantly described the dynamic nature of molecules participating in these processes during the course of T cell activation ( 5 , 6 , 7 , 8 , 9 ). (jimmunol.org)
  • The primary structure can be divided into five functional domains (Fig. 1 A). The N-terminal domain contains signals for lipid modification: myristoylation (in all SFKs) and palmitoylation (in all but c-Src and Blk) signals, both of which are required for membrane association of SFKs (Fig. 1 B). Palmitoylation has been implicated in the stable localization of SFKs in membrane microdomains called "lipid rafts" [ 14 ]. (ijbs.com)
  • molecular
  • The structures of the human amphiphysin-1 SH3 domain complexed with 884 peptides were first modeled using virtual mutagenesis and optimized by molecular mechanics (MM) minimization. (genes2cognition.org)
  • Specifically, both lateral association of the TCR, CD4, and signaling molecules with sphingolipid-rich membrane microdomains (rafts), as well as the higher order molecular patterning observed in the immunological synapse, have been shown to be correlated with T cell activation ( 1 , 2 , 3 , 4 ). (jimmunol.org)
  • motifs
  • SPIN90 is a widely expressed Nck-binding protein that contains one Src homology 3 (SH3) domain, three Pro-rich motifs, and a serine/threonine-rich region, and is known to participate in sarcomere assembly during cardiac myocyte differentiation. (semanticscholar.org)
  • mechanisms
  • This has led to detailed insights into the mechanisms of AD, such as APP processing or TAU-phosphorylation, but a coherent picture encompassing AD pathology (i.e., cause/etiology, mechanisms of development, structural changes of neurons, and clinical manifestations) is still in its infancy. (hindawi.com)
  • Our results suggest that the pathological mechanisms underlying AD, that result in increased tau phosphorylation, may disrupt the physiological relationship between tau phosphorylation and fyn. (biomedcentral.com)
  • pathway
  • Concentrating on the cyclic AMP-EPAC-Rap1-SOCS-3 pathway might as a result end up being a useful technique for combating pathologies connected with chronic vascular irritation. (bioinf.org)
  • A crucial part of this direction is to delineate the intracellular signaling pathway leading from EPAC and Rap1 to SOCS-3 induction. (bioinf.org)
  • Sequence
  • 14 ) involved the sequence analysis of 424 kb of DNA between the TNF gene cluster and a newly identified gene ∼20 kb telomeric of 0tf-3 at the centromeric end of the class I region. (jimmunol.org)
  • human
  • Modeling and prediction of binding affinities between the human amphiphysin SH3 domain and its peptide ligands using genetic algorithm-Gaussian processes. (genes2cognition.org)
  • In this article, we discuss the application of the Gaussian process (GP) and other statistical methods (PLS, ANN, and SVM) for the modeling and prediction of binding affinities between the human amphiphysin SH3 domain and its peptide ligands. (genes2cognition.org)
  • The human MHC spans ∼4 megabases (Mb) 3 of DNA in the chromosome band 6p21.3. (jimmunol.org)
  • activity
  • We further revealed that laminin-Lu/BCAM-induced cell adhesion and F-actin rearrangement were through increased Erk phosphorylation with an increase of RhoA and a decrease of Rac1 activity. (biomedcentral.com)
  • cells
  • In addition, these cells demonstrate impaired chemotactic responses to C5a ( 14 ) and a loss of H 2 O 2 production ( 12 ), all defects being prevented by treatment of cecal ligation/puncture (CLP) 3 animals with anti-C5a Abs ( 12 , 16 ). (jimmunol.org)
  • Our latest observations claim that C/EBP transcription elements, especially C/EBP, are turned on by cyclic AMP and EPAC and Flunixin meglumine mediate SOCS-3 induction in mouse embryonic fibroblasts and vascular endothelial cells (10). (bioinf.org)
  • induction
  • As a result, the induction of SOCS-3 represents a book function of EPAC that delivers a previously unidentified mechanism where cyclic AMP can suppress cytokine signaling. (bioinf.org)
  • mechanism
  • Accordingly, we postulate a positive feedback mechanism in which AD risk factors or genes trigger perturbations of intraneuronal signalling leading to enhanced A β o formation and TAU phosphorylation which in turn further derange signalling. (hindawi.com)