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  • Acetylation
  • Overall, our study suggests that S -glutathionylation and phosphorylation of IKKα plays an important role in histone acetylation on proinflammatory gene promoters and NF-κB-mediated abnormal and sustained lung inflammation in pathogenesis of chronic inflammatory lung diseases. (physiology.org)
  • It is well known that CS exposure causes inflammation in the lung by activation of redox-sensitive NF-κB via phosphorylation/acetylation of its subunit, RelA/p65 ( 11 , 39 , 54 ). (physiology.org)
  • Gene
  • Its phosphorylation and gene expression are regulated throughout development and in response to extracellular signals regulating cell proliferation, differentiation and function. (wikipedia.org)
  • regulatory
  • The gamma subunits contain the active site of the enzyme, whereas the alpha and beta subunits have regulatory functions controlled by phosphorylation. (genecards.org)
  • Phosphorylation is the most heavily studied regulatory PTM, and proteomic approaches for global enrichment, detection, and characterization of this modification have provided the basis of our current knowledge of the complexity and redundancy in cell signaling networks ( 12 - 16 ). (pnas.org)
  • substrate
  • CRAHSP1 is a serine phosphoprotein initially identified as a physiological substrate for the Ca2+-calmodulin regulated protein phosphatase calcineurin (PP2B). (prospecbio.com)
  • activity
  • Deletion of the C-terminal 33 residues resulted in reduced phosphatidylserine-dependent ATPase activity, phosphatidylserine flippase activity, and neurite extension in PC12 cells. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Most interestingly, in analogy to phosphorylation, synaptic activity leads to a dynamic modulation of O-GlcNAc levels ( 10 ) and is also involved in long-term potentiation and memory ( 11 ). (pnas.org)
  • Coomassie staining), mitochondrial membrane potential (by JC-1), DNA damage (comet assay), oxidative damage (malondialdehyde (MDA) production), in vitro fertilization and protein phosphorylation (immunodetection), and erythrocyte acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity. (osti.gov)
  • membrane
  • Both 1 and ROS increased lipid accumulation, the expression of adiponectin and GLUT4 in the cell membrane and decreased both the size of adipocytes and the phosphorylation of IRS-1, ERK1/2 and JNK in 3T3-L1 cells. (mdpi.com)
  • important
  • O-GlcNAc may be as widespread and important as phosphorylation, but currently the tools required to identify sites and thereby decipher a mechanistic understanding of the modification and its interplay with other PTMs are lacking to the extent that this deficiency has recently been described as the "most important impediment to research on O-GlcNAc" ( 2 ). (pnas.org)
  • response
  • IKKβ is shown to phosphorylate NH 2 -terminal serines on IκBα, whereas IKKα regulates non-canonical pathway of NF-κB in response to a variety of inflammatory stimuli ( 33 , 43 , 53 ). (physiology.org)
  • functions
  • The limiting factor impeding rapid progress in deciphering the biological functions of protein O-GlcNAcylation has been the inability to easily identify exact residues of modification. (pnas.org)
  • single
  • Gain-of-function mutations that confer transforming capacity are frequently observed in KRAS, predominantly arising as single amino acid substitutions at residues G12, G13, or Q61 ( 9 ). (aacrjournals.org)