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  • proteins
  • In general, DNA methylation affects gene expression in two ways: (i) directly, by altering the binding sites of transcription factors, or (ii) indirectly, via recruitment of proteins that recognize and bind to the methylated DNA and in turn modulate gene expression. (hindawi.com)
  • mRNA
  • The first report of mRNA modification, specifically, methylation of the N6 position of adenosine (m6A) , occurred in 1974 by Fritz Rottman et al. . (wordpress.com)
  • replication
  • Demethylation may take place as a passive process because of lack of maintenance methylation during several cycles of DNA replication or as an active mechanism in the absence of replication ( 8 ). (pnas.org)
  • catalytic
  • Because embryonic stem cells (ESCs) are less dependent on oxidative phosphorylation than somatic cells, we examined the effects of catalytic inactivation of Nsun3 on self-renewal and differentiation potential of murine ESCs. (springer.com)
  • DNMT
  • The decrease in DNA methylation rate by DNMT 3A provides the basis of our ongoing efforts to alter cellular DNA methylation levels without the toxicity of currently used methods. (ucsb.edu)
  • eukaryotes
  • In eukaryotes, DNA methylation is detected in protists, fungi, plants, and animals ( 3 ) and plays important roles in the establishment of developmental programs ( 4 , 5 ) and in genome defense against parasitic mobile elements ( 6 ). (pnas.org)
  • pathway
  • It is also hypothesized that these oxidized products can be reverted to cytosine through the base excision repair pathway. (wiley.com)
  • carbon
  • Direct removal of the methyl group from 5-meC residues has been claimed ( 11 ), but this mechanism, which involves a thermodynamically unfavorable breakage of the carbon-carbon bond, has been questioned ( 12 ) and could not be independently reproduced ( 13 , 14 ). (pnas.org)
  • The methyl group adds to the 5' carbon of cytosine ring forming 5-methyl cytosine as shown in Figure 1 . (omicsonline.org)
  • fundamental
  • In particular, histone changes and DNA methylation are fundamental biological processes representing versatile candidates for pharmacological manipulation with important therapeutic advantages. (intechopen.com)
  • sequences
  • Nevertheless, they also have significant activity on both substrates at CpApG and asymmetric sequences, which are additional methylation targets in plant genomes. (pnas.org)
  • Translation
  • We demonstrate that Nsun3 -mutant cells show strongly reduced mt-tRNA Met methylation and formylation as well as reduced mitochondrial translation and respiration. (springer.com)
  • Changes
  • This paper attempts to review genetic changes attributed to abnormalities in DNA methylation which in turn activate tumoriogenic potential of cells further leading to cancer. (omicsonline.org)
  • cancer
  • Epigenetic alterations, such as the methylation of CpGs islands, may reveal candidates for the development of specific markers for cancer detection, diagnosis and prognosis. (mdpi.com)