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  • mitochondria
  • These bioenergetic, biosynthetic and signaling functions render mitochondria capable of rapidly sensing and integrating stress signals, in order to coordinate biochemical pathways required for the appropriate responses of the cell to environmental changes ( 1 ). (frontiersin.org)
  • Unlike Warburg's proposal, tumor cell mitochondria not only retain their functionality, but are also instrumental for integrating a variety of signals and adjusting the metabolic activity of the cell to such a demanding and stressful situation ( 4 ) (Figure 1 ). (frontiersin.org)
  • blue
  • Steps 1 and 3 consume ATP (blue) and steps 7 and 10 produce ATP (yellow). (wikipedia.org)
  • cell
  • NRAS is the predominant isoform mutated in cutaneous melanomas and acute myelogenous leukemia, whereas HRAS is the predominant isoform mutated in bladder and head and neck squamous cell carcinomas ( 1 ). (sciencemag.org)