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  • regulatory
  • Functional genetic analyses revealed that IFN regulatory factor 3-mediated pathways that resulted in IFN-β transcriptional upregulation were activated in cultured human neuronal cells by the PRRs TLR3, MDA5, or RIG-I in a ligand-specific manner. (jimmunol.org)
  • ref. 5 ), as well as through direct interactions of Rac, cdc42, and Rac-GEFs with the p85 regulatory subunit ( 6 , 7 ), which are involved in cdc42-mediated c-Jun-NH 2 -kinase activation ( 8 ). (aacrjournals.org)
  • lipid
  • Most of the cancer-specific mutations induce a gain of function that results in oncogenicity, elevated lipid kinase activity and constitutive signaling through the kinases Akt and TOR. (nih.gov)
  • Insulin stimulation, during the glycerol infusion, resulted in a fourfold increase in PI 3-kinase activity over basal that was abolished during the lipid infusion. (nih.gov)
  • Characterization of the new proteins revealed that Atg14L enhances Vps34 lipid kinase activity and upregulates autophagy, whereas Rubicon reduces Vps34 activity and downregulates autophagy. (nih.gov)
  • apoptosis
  • Taken together, we demonstrated that inhibition of PI3-kinase/Akt signaling promoted Fas-induced apoptosis in cholangiocarcinoma independent of Fas expression. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Decreased activation of FLIP, ERK and NFκB, and increased activation of caspase-3, 8 and 9 were responsible for the increased sensitivity of cells to Fas-induced apoptosis. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Gambogic acid could inhibit proliferation of LOVO cells in a dose-dependent and time-dependent manner and induce apoptosis, which was dramatically enhanced by magnetic nanoparticles containing Fe(3)O(4). (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • The typical morphological features of apoptosis in LOVO cells were observed after treatment comprising gambogic acid with and without magnetic nanoparticles containing Fe(3)O(4). (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • Signaling
  • Antiviral PRR signaling is initiated by a variety of receptors, including the transmembrane TLR proteins 2, 3, 4, 7/8, and 9, and the RIG-I-like receptors (RLRs) RIG-I and MDA5 ( 2 ). (jimmunol.org)
  • assays
  • Here, we describe the Arabidopsis ortholog of VPS38 and show by interaction assays that it assembles into a tetrameric PtdIn-3 kinase complex II. (frontiersin.org)
  • insulin
  • Interestingly, chronic GH treatment increased insulin-stimulated association of IRS-1 with p85 and IRS-1-associated PI 3-kinase activity preferentially in the cytosol. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Evidence for the implication of both Akt and aPKC in the insulin-dependent regulation of glucose transport in muscle cells arises from transfection studies using either kinase-inactive or overexpression/constitutively active forms of the kinases ( 10 - 13 ). (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Using the high-fat-fed rat as a model of obesity-linked insulin resistance, we recently found that insulin action on both Akt and aPKC kinase activities are blunted in skeletal muscle of these rats ( 14 ). (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Vps38
  • Collectively, this study places VPS38 and its class-III PtdIn-3 kinase complex at the nexus of numerous endosomal trafficking events important to plant growth and development. (frontiersin.org)
  • transcription
  • Transcription of cytochrome c, caspase 9, and caspase 3 genes was higher in the group treated with magnetic nanoparticles containing Fe(3)O(4) and gambogic acid than in the groups that received gambogic acid or magnetic nanoparticles containing Fe(3)O(4), but transcription of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase, Akt, and Bad genes decreased. (sigmaaldrich.com)