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  • Enzyme
  • Their colleague Hugo Theorell separated this yellow enzyme into apoenzyme and yellow pigment and showed that neither the enzyme alone or the pigment was capable of oxidizing NADH on their own but mixing them together would restore activity. (wikipedia.org)
  • Theorell confirmed the pigment to be riboflavins phosphate ester, flavin mononucleotide (FMN) in 1937, which was the first direct evidence for enzyme cofactors. (wikipedia.org)
  • Biologically active material such as an enzyme is bonded to a carrier containing hydroxyl groups by binding an isocyanate compound to the carrier and bonding the biologically active material to the bound isocyanate compound. (google.com)
  • The enzyme NovF catalyzes the decarboxylation of prephenate while simultaneously reducing nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADP+) to produce NADPH. (wikipedia.org)
  • Serine/threonine-protein kinase Sgk1 also known as serum and glucocorticoid-regulated kinase 1 is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the SGK1 gene. (wikipedia.org)
  • The multifunctional glycolytic enzyme glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH,EC 1.2.1.12) has been shown to utilize post translational modifications to exhibit higher order moonlighting behavior wherein it switches its function as a holo or apo transferrin receptor leading to either iron delivery or iron export respectively. (wikipedia.org)
  • Two Mg2+ are coordinated by the phosphate groups on the ATP, and are required for ATP binding to the enzyme. (wikipedia.org)
  • In the crystal structure of the ADK enzyme from E. coli with inhibitor Ap5A, the Arg88 residue binds the Ap5A at the α-phosphate group. (wikipedia.org)
  • It has been shown that the mutation R88G results in 99% loss of catalytic activity of this enzyme, suggesting that this residue is intimately involved in the phosphoryl transfer. (wikipedia.org)
  • Enzyme Binding: Lysine 2,3-aminomutase binds to pyridoxal phosphate (PLP). (wikipedia.org)
  • Transporter reversal typically occurs when a membrane transport protein is phosphorylated by a particular protein kinase, which is an enzyme that adds a phosphate group to proteins. (wikipedia.org)
  • The enzyme catalyses a Claisen-like condensation between L-serine and an acyl-CoA thioester (CoASH) substrate (typically C16-palmitoyl) or an acyl-ACP (acyl-carrier protein) thioester substrate, to form 3-ketodihydrosphingosine. (wikipedia.org)
  • These mutations have been shown to alter active site specificity, specifically by enhancing the ability of the enzyme to condense L-alanine with the palmitoyl-CoA substrate. (wikipedia.org)
  • Ceramide can also be broken down by enzymes called ceramidases, leading to the formation of sphingosine, Moreover, a phosphate group can be attached to ceramide (phosphorylation) by the enzyme, ceramide kinase. (wikipedia.org)
  • Alkaline phosphatase (ALP, ALKP, ALPase, Alk Phos) (EC 3.1.3.1) or basic phosphatase is a homodimeric protein enzyme of 86 kilodaltons. (wikipedia.org)
  • This characteristic of the enzyme is uncommon to many other proteins. (wikipedia.org)
  • Pyridoxal phosphate (a derivative of pyridoxine) is required for d-aminolevulinic acid synthase, the enzyme responsible for the rate-limiting step in heme synthesis. (wikipedia.org)
  • Thus
  • Thus, the gene carrier VBPEA of the invention can be used as an experimental gene carrier and can also be widely used in gene therapy against various diseases depending on the kind of therapeutic gene. (freepatentsonline.com)
  • Thus the fungal, plant, animal and archaeal proteins each cluster separately. (wikipedia.org)
  • thus, the balance between conformations regulates protein activity. (wikipedia.org)
  • Alkaline phosphatase in E. coli is located in the periplasmic space and can thus be released using techniques that weaken the cell wall and release the protein. (wikipedia.org)
  • induces
  • Formation of gas vesicles are regulated by two Gvp proteins: GvpD, which represses the expression of GvpA and GvpC proteins, and GvpE, which induces expression. (wikipedia.org)
  • amino acids
  • How did the amino acids interact with the carrier RNA? (dnalc.org)
  • Remember that a protein is a polypeptide chain of amino acids linked to one another by peptide bonds. (dnalc.org)
  • To follow protein construction, I added radiolabeled amino acids to the cell-free extract. (dnalc.org)
  • I started working in Paul's lab in 1953, focusing on how amino acids were activated, or energized, prior to their incorporation into proteins. (dnalc.org)
  • In 1955, Paul, Mary Stephensen and I found, to our surprise, that amino acids were first attached to a low molecular weight ('soluble') RNA in this same soluble fraction, and those amino acids were subsequently transferred to proteins in ribosomes. (dnalc.org)
  • But, still, there was no answer to the problem of how the genetic code instructed cytoplasmic tRNAs and amino acids to make proteins. (dnalc.org)
  • Functional
  • It has already been shown that plant anatomical, morphological, and physiological changes under e[CO 2 ] can be different, based on (i) the plant's functional group, (ii) the available soil nutrients, and (iii) the governing water status. (frontiersin.org)
  • Hence, despite the significant functional importance of membrane proteins, determining atomic resolution structures for these proteins is more difficult than globular proteins. (wikipedia.org)
  • After the protein is taken up by the mitochondria it can be processed into a mature protein and assemble to form functional ferritin shells. (wikipedia.org)
  • molecule
  • Because DNA is the hereditary molecule of the cell, we reasoned that the sequence of nucleotides in the molecule must function as a code, able to direct the synthesis of proteins. (dnalc.org)
  • I proposed the 'Central Dogma' where information flows from DNA to protein via a carrier molecule. (dnalc.org)
  • X-ray crystallographic studies have found that the drug-receptor complex of Novobiocin and DNA Gyrase shows that ATP and Novobiocin have overlapping binding sites on the gyrase molecule. (wikipedia.org)
  • cofactors
  • These patterns will serve as a useful reference for future studies on the tissue-specific roles and interactions of nuclear receptor proteins, partners, cofactors and ligands. (g3journal.org)
  • humans
  • FGF-23 is regulated by dietary phosphate in humans. (hmdb.ca)
  • alpha-2-HS-glycoprotein (AHSG) also known as fetuin-A is a protein that in humans is encoded by the AHSG gene. (wikipedia.org)
  • Humans and most eukaryotes have evolved an ACC with CT and BC catalytic domains and biotin carboxyl carrier domains on a single polypeptide. (wikipedia.org)
  • archaeal
  • In this review, we summarize current understanding of archaeal S-layer proteins, discussing topics such as structure, lattice type distribution among archaeal phyla and glycosylation. (frontiersin.org)
  • lipid
  • The increase in the sugar carrier dolichyl phosphate may reflect an increased rate of glycosylation in the diseased brain, and the increase in the endogenous anti-oxidant ubiquinone an attempt to protect the brain from oxidative stress, for instance, induced by lipid peroxidation. (wikipedia.org)
  • induce
  • Alternatively, suppressing the expression of this gene has been shown to induce apoptosis and inhibit tumor growth. (wikipedia.org)
  • soluble
  • Each of the soluble RNAs could pair to its partner amino acid and ferry the amino acid to the ribosome for protein synthesis. (dnalc.org)
  • Free energy differences between such detergent-denatured and native states are similar to stabilities of water-soluble proteins ( (wikipedia.org)
  • It is the primary intracellular iron-storage protein in both prokaryotes and eukaryotes, keeping iron in a soluble and non-toxic form. (wikipedia.org)
  • synthesis
  • Francis Crick describes RNA and its role and Paul Zamecnick explains protein synthesis. (dnalc.org)
  • One puzzle we had to figure out was how DNA, which is found mainly in the cell's nucleus, can direct the synthesis of proteins that are made exclusively in the cell's cytoplasm. (dnalc.org)
  • Hi, I'm Paul Zamecnik and I was interested in protein synthesis. (dnalc.org)
  • While the RNA part of the ribosome (rRNA) is involved in protein synthesis, its role was unclear. (dnalc.org)
  • Among the more remarkable of the findings is that the majority of mRNA expression patterns observed show striking subcellular distributions, indicating potentially critical roles in the control of protein synthesis and subsequent subcellular distributions. (g3journal.org)
  • This mutant explored the role of the pentose phosphate pathway of T. maritima in hydrogen synthesis. (wikipedia.org)
  • physiological
  • These disorders are characterized by specific metabolic dysfunctions, depending on the physiological role of the affected carrier in intermediary metabolism. (wikipedia.org)
  • ligands
  • Flexibility and plasticity allow proteins to bind to ligands, form oligomers, aggregate, and perform mechanical work. (wikipedia.org)