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  • sieve tubes
  • This process is accomplished by a process called phloem loading at a source and unloading at a sink, which causes a pressure gradient that drives the contents of the phloem up or down the sieve tubes from source to sink. (newworldencyclopedia.org)
  • For instance, sub-structures of sieve elements may reduce their hydraulic conductances to levels that impede flow rates of phloem sap and observed magnitudes of pressure gradients to drive flow along sieve tubes could be inadequate in tall trees. (frontiersin.org)
  • Stanfield RC, Hacke UG, Laur J (2017) Are phloem sieve tubes leaky conduits supported by numerous aquaporins? (springer.com)
  • roots
  • The phloem vascular system facilitates transport of energy-rich sugar and signalling molecules in plants, thus permitting long-range communication within the organism and growth of non-photosynthesizing organs such as roots and fruits. (royalsocietypublishing.org)
  • On the scale of the phloem tissue, this process results in a bulk flow of sap along the major veins out of the leaf, towards regions of low osmotic potential in the plant, such as roots or fruits. (royalsocietypublishing.org)
  • The phloem collects photoassimilates in green leaves, distributes them in the plant and supplies the heterotrophic plant organs (e.g. fruits, buds and roots). (els.net)
  • Lee (1981) measured significant differences in turgor at various elevations in ash ( Fraxinus americana ), but in some cases it was actually higher close to the roots, and Zimmermann's (1957) measurements of sugar gradients in ash can only be reconciled with theory if the pressure in the phloem of the roots is zero. (plantphysiol.org)
  • F-WGA bound specifically to the walls of tracheary elements (TEs) and phloem cells of pea roots. (springer.com)
  • 2dG-sucrose synthesized from 2dG was transported from scutella to the roots along the phloem. (deepdyve.com)
  • concentrations
  • Since Ceratocystis minor is central to the death of pines infested by southern pine beetles, changes in polyphenols of infected loblolly pine were examined with regard to accumulation of fungal metabolites and changes in concentrations of fungitoxic and fungistatic phloem and xylem constitutents. (usda.gov)
  • Phloem sap purity was assessed by measuring sugar concentrations. (csic.es)
  • The amino acid concentrations in the phloem sap are found to be not very different from the cytosolic concentrations, whereas the sieve tube concentration of sucrose is found to be one order of magnitude higher than in the cytosol. (biomedsearch.com)
  • consists
  • It is a universal feature of seed plants that their phloem consists of a continuous sieve-tube system throughout the plant that is highly pressurized by its sugar contents. (springer.com)
  • meristem
  • For instance, flowering is induced by transmission of a phloem-mobile hormone from the leaves to the meristem [ 6 ]. (royalsocietypublishing.org)
  • In addition, understanding the interplay between the PLETHORA (PLT) gradient, which is known to govern the root zonation, and phloem development within the root meristem could shed light on the rapidity of SE differentiation and its importance to the meristem. (springer.com)
  • exudates
  • The aim of this work was to study the effect of Fe deficiency on the protein profile of phloem sap exudates from Brassica napus using 2DE (IEF-SDS-PAGE). (csic.es)
  • Apoplasmic
  • Schulz A, Kühn C, Riesmeier JW, Frommer WR (1998) Ultrastructural effects in potato leaves due to antisense-inhibition of the sucrose transporter indicate an apoplasmic mode of phloem loading. (springer.com)
  • leaf
  • Here, we investigate the phloem structure in the simplest possible geometry: a linear leaf, found, for example, in the needles of conifer trees. (royalsocietypublishing.org)
  • At some point after leaf development, the phloem eventually collapses and becomes dysfunctional. (phys.org)
  • Amino acid and sucrose contents were analyzed in the chloroplastic, cytosolic, and vacuolar compartments and in the phloem sap of illuminated spinach leaves (Spinacia oleracea L.). The determination of subcellular metabolite distribution was carried out by nonaqueous fractionation of frozen and lyophilized leaf material using a novel three-compartment calculation method. (biomedsearch.com)
  • fibre
  • a) A collateral vascular bundle in the petiole of Plantago major has internal (iP) and external phloem (eP) on either side of the xylem (X) enclosed by several phloem fibre layers with dark appearing cell walls. (els.net)
  • The 'Global and Chinese Phloem Fibre Industry, 2013-2023 Market Research Report' is a professional and in-depth study on the current state of the global Phloem Fibre industry with a focus on the Chinese market. (reportsnreports.com)
  • The report provides key statistics on the market status of the Phloem Fibre manufacturers and is a valuable source of guidance and direction for companies and individuals interested in the industry. (reportsnreports.com)
  • Through the statistical analysis, the report depicts the global and Chinese total market of Phloem Fibre industry including capacity, production, production value, cost/profit, supply/demand and Chinese import/export. (reportsnreports.com)
  • The report then estimates 2018-2023 market development trends of Phloem Fibre industry. (reportsnreports.com)
  • In the end, the report makes some important proposals for a new project of Phloem Fibre Industry before evaluating its feasibility. (reportsnreports.com)
  • Overall, the report provides an in-depth insight of 2013-2023 global and Chinese Phloem Fibre industry covering all important parameters. (reportsnreports.com)
  • 5.2 Market Competition of Phloem Fibre Industry by Country (USA, EU, Japan, Chinese etc. (reportsnreports.com)
  • regulate
  • In addition to resources, the phloem distributes hormonal signals and a broad spectrum of protein- and RNA-based messages throughout the plant that regulate a variety of physiological and developmental processes. (frontiersin.org)
  • cucurbit
  • Sap was seen by microscopic examination to flow primarily from the fascicular phloem in cucumber, and several other cucurbit species, but primarily from the extrafascicular phloem in pumpkin. (plantphysiol.org)
  • We conclude that sap is released from cucurbit phloem upon wounding but contributes negligibly to total exudate volume. (plantphysiol.org)
  • That means it could be used to understand not only citrus greening but a wide variety of phloem diseases such as cucurbit yellow vine disease, corn stunt disease, and onion yellow dwarf disease. (eurekalert.org)
  • bark
  • To gain new insights into phloem formation in Norway spruce ( Picea abies ), we monitored phloem cell production and seasonal variation in the primary and secondary metabolites of inner bark (non-structural carbohydrates and phenolic stilbene glucosides) during the 2012 growing season in southern and northern Finland. (springer.com)
  • Within-year phloem formation was associated with seasonal changes in non-structural carbohydrates and phenolic extractive contents of inner bark. (springer.com)
  • molecules
  • Signalling molecules accessing the phloem are swept along with assimilates and trigger important growth processes such as flowering. (els.net)
  • To combat future crop loss due to abiotic stress, we need to understand the signals responsible for changes in plant development and the resulting adaptations, especially the signaling molecules traveling long-distance through the plant phloem. (frontiersin.org)
  • stem
  • d) Sieve areas of living stem phloem in spruce as visualized with confocal laser scanning microscopy. (els.net)
  • The sugar composition of exudate from extrafascicular phloem near the edge of the stem differed from that of other sources in that it was high in hexose and low in stachyose. (plantphysiol.org)
  • Using stem-loop RT-PCR, three whitefly sRNAs have been verified to be present in whitefly-infested leaflets that were also present in the whitefly-infested phloem sample. (frontiersin.org)
  • Pinus
  • We measure the phloem structure in four tree species representing a diverse set of habitats and needle sizes, from 1 ( Picea omorika ) to 35 cm ( Pinus palustris ). (royalsocietypublishing.org)
  • osmotic
  • Phloem pressure can also be measured with a probe ( Hammel, 1968 ), or calculated from measurements of osmotic and water potentials (Sovonick-Dunford et al. (plantphysiol.org)
  • plant organs
  • This chapter describes the steps necessary to minimize development of artifacts in the phloem and includes preparation of fixatives, a dissection procedure that optimizes penetration of the fixatives and application to axial and lateral plant organs. (springer.com)
  • Three different types of EPWs have been identified: action potential, variation potential, and system potential, all of which have been indicated to participate in phloem-based communication between plant organs. (springer.com)