• Search by «Any study term» provides results for phenotype terms through the studies having common genes knocked down. (ebi.ac.uk)
  • Microarray data are good phenotypes to determine the order of genes and are a good surrogate measure of cell status," said Dr. Gad Shaulsky, associate professor of molecular and human genetics at BCM. (innovations-report.com)
  • The microarray data Shaulsky and his collaborators used show that they can determine the order in which genes act in a cascade that results in a particular phenotype. (innovations-report.com)
  • The idea of an extended phenotype refers to the expression of genes in the behavior of an organism rather than its physical composition. (reference.com)
  • The goal of this big idea is to address how we predict the phenotype, the structure, function and behavior of an organism, based on what we know about its genes and environment," Olds says. (nsf.gov)
  • By measuring this variation and its effect on phenotype, we show that expression for specific genes may be free to vary during evolution within particular bounds. (discovermagazine.com)
  • The breed purity debate goes along these lines: should a breed be based on genotype (what genes it inherited) or phenotype (appearance, despite an out-cross four generations ago) A Tabby-point Siamese is phenotypically Siamese, but because the tabby pattern was introduced from non-Siamese cats, genotype-followers consider it "not Siamese" and are worried it will pollute their purebred breeding lines. (messybeast.com)
  • This diagram displays phenotype observables (purple squares) that are shared between the given gene (yellow circle) and other genes (gray circles) based on the number of phenotype observables shared (adjustable using the slider at the bottom). (yeastgenome.org)
  • As of today, predominant thinking in biology research is that multiple genes interact with multiple environmental variables (such as abiotic factors, culture, or symbionts) to produce the phenotype. (frontiersin.org)
  • The variation in genes caused by mutation generates the different phenotypes, characteristics such as animal behaviour, that allow natural selection to work. (innovations-report.com)
  • many of our genes, that's how genotype affects phenotype. (coursera.org)
  • The extended human phenotype is using memes not genes. (lukew.com)
  • In fact, most characteristics (phenotypes) are shaped by the actions of multiple genes, rather than the "one gene-one trait" model that so often is taught to biology students. (bioedonline.org)
  • The set of genes you carry (known as your genotype) is what determines your phenotype. (ancestry.ca)
  • While your phenotype describes your physical characteristics, your genotype is the complete set of genes you carry. (ancestry.ca)
  • OBJECTIVE To determine plasma apolipoprotein A-IV (apoA-IV) levels and phenotype distribution in non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM) patients and to analyze the influence of apoA-IV phenotype on lipid profiles in NIDDM. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • The apoA-IV phenotype was determined in each individual. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • The apoA-IV phenotype distribution was not significantly different between NIDDM patients and control subjects. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • The mean of plasma cholesterol, triglyceride, apoB and E levels did not differ significantly among the different apoA-IV phenotype groups. (tudelft.nl)
  • Our results did not show any effect of apoA-IV polymorphism on plasma apoA-I levels nor could we find any correlation between plasma levels of apoA-I and apoA-IV within the different apoA-IV phenotype groups. (tudelft.nl)
  • Polygenic inheritance can be explained by additive effects of many loci: if each 'capital' allele contributes one increment to the phenotype. (brown.edu)
  • The link between regulation of INO1 gene expression and the Opi − phenotype is further supported by the existence of the dominant OPI5+ mutant allele ( S wift and M c G raw 1995 ). (genetics.org)
  • Richard Dawkins, the man who proposed the idea of the extended phenotype, argues that once the new allele was introduced, the population of birds would evolve because of the allele. (reference.com)
  • When allele A is dominant over allele A', write out the parental phenotypes and genotypes. (enotes.com)
  • One example is snapdragons, where a pink flower is the phenotype that results from a genotype consisting of one red allele and one white allele. (ancestry.ca)
  • Due to the potential volume of data, the latter option is available only if a phenotype trait was selected in the initial search. (nih.gov)
  • It has been suggested that the thrifty phenotype is the consequence of three unlike adaptive processes: maternal effects, niche construction and developmental plasticity, which all are influenced by the brain. (wikipedia.org)
  • The concept of phenotypic plasticity describes the degree to which an organism's phenotype is determined by its genotype. (princeton.edu)
  • It argues that evolutionary complexity is essentially a functional kind of complexity, and for it to evolve, a full body, or, in other words, a dynamically defined, deeply structured, and plasticity-bound phenotype is required. (mit.edu)
  • We consider the recently popular idea of niche construction and relate it to the plasticity of the phenotype. (mit.edu)
  • We derive a form of phenotype plasticity from the hidden (unused) and explicit (functional) factors discussed in the causality part. (mit.edu)
  • This entire section is optional if a category and/or trait are selected in the phenotype selection. (nih.gov)
  • dominance when AA = Aa in phenotype, A is dominant, a is recessive . (brown.edu)
  • Our male X-linked recessive cases show significant new phenotypes: developmental delay (without eye anomalies) in two affected half-brothers with a novel BCOR variant, and one male with high myopia, megalophthalmos, posterior embryotoxon, developmental delay, and heart and bony anomalies with a previously undescribed BCOR splice site variant. (springer.com)
  • What are examples of homozygous recessive phenotype? (reference.com)
  • An example of homozygous recessive phenotype would be a red-flowered pea plant. (reference.com)
  • Cystic fibrosis is another homozygous recessive phenotype. (reference.com)
  • Other diseases, such as Huntington's, are also expressed through the recessive phenotype. (reference.com)
  • If canalization is not present, small changes in the genome have an immediate effect on the phenotype that develops. (princeton.edu)
  • approaches that relate genome structure to phenotype. (nbic.nl)
  • Gene expression analyses of microglia, the tissue-resident macrophages of the central nervous system (CNS), led to the identification of homeostatic as well as neurological disease-specific gene signatures of microglial phenotypes. (rug.nl)
  • Applications are sought proposing studies of genotype/phenotype correlations in diverse subtypes, the relationship between minority variants and treatment outcomes and on the reasons for the discordance between genotype and treatment success or failure. (nih.gov)
  • The genotype-phenotype distinction should not be confused with Francis Crick 's central dogma of molecular biology , which is a statement about the directionality of molecular sequential information flowing from DNA to protein, and not the reverse. (wikipedia.org)
  • however the scope of this resource will be extended to include any available genotype/molecular phenotype datasets. (nih.gov)
  • The white-flowered pea plant expresses the dominant phenotype. (reference.com)
  • Selection acts on phenotypes because differential reproduction and survivorship depend on phenotype. (brown.edu)
  • The model consists of a partial differential equation for population density with respect to a continuous variable representing phenotype diversity. (aimsciences.org)
  • Forty-eight patients from two independent cohorts fulfilling the Canada 2003 criteria for ME/CFS were evaluated with respect to cytotoxic lymphocyte phenotype and function. (frontiersin.org)
  • CONCLUSIONS -Hp phenotype is an apparent risk factor for the development of GDM in our study population. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Conclusions: These data suggest that short AIB1 genotypes may promote aggressive malignant phenotypes of epithelial ovarian cancer. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Phenotype annotations for a gene are curated single mutant phenotypes that require an observable (e.g., "cell shape"), a qualifier (e.g., "abnormal"), a mutant type (e.g., null), strain background, and a reference. (yeastgenome.org)
  • In contrast, a phenotype test is a measure of the ability of a single patient's virus to replicate in the presence of each ART drug. (thebody.com)
  • To facilitate the development of a personalized approach to the treatment of patients with major depression , this study is designed to elaborate the clinical and neurobiological phenotype of depressed patients with increased inflammation. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • To advance the clinical use of precision medicine, big data cohort for genotype/phenotype research and multidisciplinary team approaches are necessary. (bioscience.org)
  • In addition to the clinical classification of phenotypes, FTD can also be classified according to its histopathological substrate established after autopsy. (bioscience.org)
  • RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS -From consecutive Caucasian pregnant women ( n = 250) referred for oral glucose tolerance testing, the Hp phenotype was determined. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • In all cases, the phenotype results from the genotype, i.e. usually a structural change will occur first, and soon thereafter a phenotypic change will result. (thebody.com)
  • An organism's phenotype results from its combination of alleles. (ancestry.ca)
  • Although it is clear that changing the levels of activity can modulate the expression of the myosin phenotype, these results indicate that factors other than activation must play critical roles in determining and maintaining normal phenotypic properties of skeletal muscle fibers. (biologists.org)
  • In this review, we will discuss microglial phenotypes in relation to neurodevelopment, homeostasis, in vitro conditions, aging, and neurodegenerative diseases based on transcriptome studies. (rug.nl)
  • Proponents of this idea say that in poor nutritional conditions, a pregnant woman can modify the development of her unborn child such that it will be prepared for survival in an environment in which resources are likely to be short, resulting in a thrifty phenotype ( Hales & Barker, 1992 ). (wikipedia.org)
  • Recently, we determined the apolipoprotein E (apoE) phenotype distribution in 2,000 randomly selected 35-year-old male individuals by slab gel isoelectric focusing of delipidated plasma samples, followed by immunoblotting using anti-apoE antiserum. (tudelft.nl)
  • The opi1 mutant o ver p roduces and excretes i nositol into the growth medium in the absence of inositol and choline (Opi − phenotype). (genetics.org)
  • Expression and functional phenotype of mo. (mendeley.com)
  • Expression and functional phenotype of mouse ERG K+ channels in the inner ear: potential role in K+ regulation in the inner ear. (mendeley.com)
  • The site of expression of MERG1a and its functional phenotype (e.g., modulation of the current by external K+ make it one of the most likely candidates for establishing the high throughput of K+ ions across ICs to generate EP. (mendeley.com)
  • In the pharmaceutical industry, genotype-phenotype modelling is used to identify drug targets, whereas in food research it is applied to test the efficacy of functional food ingredients. (nbic.nl)
  • We review our work on the FATINT system, which incorporates similar ideas in a computer simulation, and shows that full-body phenotypes are sufficient for achieving functional evolution. (mit.edu)
  • Upon alterations in the neural microenvironment, either caused by local insults from within the CNS (during neurodegenerative diseases) or by macroenvironmental incidents, such as social stress, microglia can switch phenotypes-generally referred to as "microglial activation. (rug.nl)
  • The potential protective lipid profile (characterized by increased HDL and HDL 2 cholesterol levels) linked with apoA-IV-1-2 phenotype in control subjects is no longer found in NIDDM patients. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • We suggest that the metabolic state of NIDDM has erased the potential protective lipid profile associated with the apoA-IV-1-2 phenotype. (diabetesjournals.org)