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  • Nitrogen
  • Six species of free-living nitrogen fixing bacteria, Azomonas agilis, Azospirillum brasilense, Azospirillum lipoferum, Azotobacter chroococcum, Azotobacter vinelandii , and Beijerinckia mobilis , were surveyed for their ability to grow and fix N 2 using aromatic compounds as sole carbon and energy source. (springer.com)
  • Annotation described in this paper also reveals evidence for several metabolic pathways that have yet to be observed experimentally, including a sulphur oxidation ( sox FCDYZAXB) gene cluster, Calvin cycle enzymes, and proteins involved in nitrogen fixation in other species (including RubisCo, ribulose-phosphate 3-epimerase, and nif gene families, respectively). (biomedcentral.com)
  • Resorcinol
  • The A ring is similar to a resorcinol moiety while the B ring is similar to a catechol moiety. (wikipedia.org)
  • The ability to quench singlet oxygen seems to be in relation with the chemical structure of catechin, with the presence of the catechol moiety on ring B and the presence of a hydroxyl group activating the double bond on ring C. Electrochemical experiments show that (+)-catechin oxidation mechanism proceeds in sequential steps, related with the catechol and resorcinol groups and the oxidation is pH-dependent. (wikipedia.org)
  • strain
  • It was shown that the activity of monooxygenase, hydroxyquinol 1,2-dioxygenase, protocatechuate 3,4-dioxygenase and protocatechuate 4,5-dioxyegnase in strain S5 was induced after growth of the strain with naproxen and 4-hydroxybenzoate. (pjmonline.org)
  • strain Rue61a is an isolate from sewage sludge able to utilize quinaldine (2-methylquinoline) as sole carbon and energy source. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Following initial reconstruction from genome annotation and the literature, we iteratively refined the model by comparing its predictions with the results of large-scale experiments: (1) high-throughput growth phenotypes of the wild-type strain on 190 distinct environments, (2) genome-wide gene essentialities from a knockout mutant library, and (3) large-scale growth phenotypes of all mutant strains on 8 minimal media. (biomedcentral.com)
  • resistance
  • iii) Lignin is a complex organic biopolymer mainly present in plants in close association with carbohydrates like cellulose and hemicellulose, its main activity is to provide plants with structural stability, impermeability and resistance towards microbial attack [ 3 ]. (ijbs.com)
  • species
  • Activation of chymotrypsinogen in vitro by the action of trypsin and activated chymotrypsin leads to the species depicted in fig. 6-2. (centrallakesclinic.biz)
  • hydroxylase
  • Chalcone is then isomerized to naringenin by chalcone isomerase which is oxidized to eriodictyol by flavonoid 3'- hydroxylase and further oxidized to taxifolin by flavanone 3-hydroxylase. (wikipedia.org)
  • p-Hydroxyphenylacetate-3-hydroxylase. (iisc.ernet.in)
  • acid
  • L-phenylalanine is first deaminated by phenylalanine ammonia lyase (PAL) forming cinnamic acid which is then oxidized to 4-hydroxycinnamic acid by cinnamate 4-hydroyxylase. (wikipedia.org)
  • 2014). It is suggested that the transformation of naproxen by Trametes versicolor or activated sludge may occur by 2-(6-hydroxynaphthalen-2-yl)propanoic acid and 1-(6-methoxynaphthalen-2-yl)ethanone formation (Quintana et al . (pjmonline.org)
  • Benzene
  • Catechin possesses two benzene rings (called the A- and B-rings) and a dihydropyran heterocycle (the C-ring) with a hydroxyl group on carbon 3. (wikipedia.org)
  • molecules
  • Chalcone synthase then catalyzes the condensation of 4-hydroxycinnamoyl CoA and three molecules of malonyl-CoA to form chalcone. (wikipedia.org)
  • type
  • Catechin /ˈkætɪtʃɪn/ is a flavan-3-ol, a type of natural phenol and antioxidant. (wikipedia.org)
  • The predictions of the final version of the model, which included three rounds of refinements, are consistent with the experimental results for (1) 91% of the wild-type growth phenotypes, (2) 94% of the gene essentiality results, and (3) 94% of the mutant growth phenotypes. (biomedcentral.com)
  • additional
  • 2014). However, the introduction of phenol or its derivatives into the environment may constitute an additional ballast and disturb ecological balance. (pjmonline.org)
  • reaction
  • The oxidation of the catechol 3',4'-dihydroxyl electron-donating groups occurs first, at very low positive potentials, and is a reversible reaction. (wikipedia.org)
  • cell
  • Plant cells are protected with three layers known as middle lamella, primary and secondary cell walls which are made up of carbohydrates (cellulose, hemicellulose and pectin) and lignin [ 1 ] [Figure 1 ] i) Cellulose is a plant polysaccharide and highly abundant organic polymer on the earth, composed of numerous glucose units linked in β (1→4) linkages, occurring in both crystalline and amorphous forms. (ijbs.com)
  • Cellulose is present in plant cell walls, stems, straw, stalks and other woody portion of the plant, it alone constitutes to 40-50% of dry weight of plant material [ 2 ]. (ijbs.com)
  • chemical
  • It belongs to the group of flavan-3-ols (or simply flavanols), part of the chemical family of flavonoids. (wikipedia.org)