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  • follicular
  • At sea level normally menstruating women show increased ventilation (V̇ e ) and hemodynamic changes due to increased progesterone (P) and estrogen (E2) levels during the mid-luteal (L) compared to the mid-follicular (F) phase of the ovarian cycle. (biologists.org)
  • Measures
  • This repeated-measures, randomized study, conducted at 3600 m, tests the hypothesis that a P-mediated increase in V̇ e increases maximal oxygen consumption (V̇ O 2 max ) during the L phase relative to the F phase in Bolivian women, either born and raised at high altitude (HA), or resident at HA since early childhood. (biologists.org)
  • Using a repeated-measures design on a large study sample, our purpose was to determine whether ovarian cycle-phase affects maximal exercise performance (V̇ O 2 max ) in women who had lived at an altitude of 3600 m since birth or early childhood. (biologists.org)
  • synthesis
  • Very little is known about the metabolism of phospholipids in the G2 and M phases of the cell cycle, but limited studies have led to the postulation that phospholipid synthesis ceases during this period. (biomedsearch.com)
  • These results demonstrate that glycerophospholipid synthesis is very active in the G2/M phase of these cells. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Therefore, the postulated cessation of phospholipid synthesis in G2/M phases is not applicable to all cell types. (biomedsearch.com)
  • During S phase, DNA synthesis occurs. (enotes.com)
  • These results suggest that the inhibition of target cell DNA synthesis by activated macrophages is not a prerequisite for the ability of these effector cells to block target cell multiplication. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Exposure in uitro to 5.0-10.0 pmol dm-' MeHg for 6 h resulted in a dose-dependent decrease in the rate of cell replication, apparently as a result of inhibition of DNA synthesis (rate of passage through the S phase of the cell cycle). (docme.ru)
  • Keywords: Methylmercury, cytotoxicity, DNA synthesis, murine erythroleukemic cell INTRODUCTION Methylmercury (MeHg), a uniquitous contaminant of the aqueous environment,' is a potent neurotoxin and terat~gen. (docme.ru)
  • The latter is manifested as increased 90' light scatter (refractive index,' protein contenP), decreased axial light loss (apparent cell volume, cell size'), simultaneous propidium iodide (PI) and carboxyfluorescein (CF) fluorescence, and resistance to detergent (NP-40)-mediated cytolysis.20 Our observations indicate that DNA synthesis is the primary target of MeHg cytotoxicity and that apparent targets and degree of cytotoxicity are a complex function of dose. (docme.ru)
  • flow cytometry
  • By using flow cytometry and JC-1 probe, the mitochondrial membrane potential of cells following treatment with IFN-λ1 was also examined. (spandidos-publications.com)
  • l6 By flow cytometry (FCM), we have observed that MeHg perturbs the cell cycle kinetics of the murine erythroleukemic cell (MELC). (docme.ru)
  • At GSMS, Coico worked as a student research assistant and studyied with the known cell biologist Zbyszek Darzynkiewicz, a professor of biochemistry and researcher of cell differentiation and carcinogenesis, and flow cytometry techniques for characterizing epithelial differentiation. (wikipedia.org)
  • Upon completing postdoctoral training, Coico's stated interests were to study the use of flow cytometry to detect risks for colo-rectal cancer (1985), and the growth and differentiation of epithelial cells (1990). (wikipedia.org)
  • biology
  • In biology, histones are highly alkaline proteins found in eukaryotic cell nuclei that package and order the DNA into structural units called nucleosomes. (wikipedia.org)
  • Coico also studied with Myron Melamed, a GSMC professor of biology and scientist with an international reputation, who had co-authored the seminal cytometry publication in Science, "Spectrophotometer: New Instruments for Ultra-rapid Cell Analysis," with Louis Kamentsky of Columbia University's IBM Watson Laboratory) and Marc E. Weksler, a professor of medicine and eventual Irving Sherwood Wright Professor of Geriatrics at Weill Cornell. (wikipedia.org)
  • Lents is noted for his work in cell biology, genetics, and forensic science, as well as his popular science writing and blogging on the evolution of human biology and behavior. (wikipedia.org)
  • Lents has published research reports in the area of cell and cancer biology, genetics, forensic science, as well as the teaching and learning of science, particularly evolution. (wikipedia.org)
  • His early work focused on the cell cycle and cancer biology, particularly the G1 to S phase transition. (wikipedia.org)
  • proteins
  • We report rapid kinetics of formation of Smad complexes, including native Smad2-Smad3-Smad4 trimeric complexes, in a manner influenced by the rate of proteasomal degradation of these proteins, and we found a striking cell to cell variation of signaling complexes. (diva-portal.org)
  • In this phase, the cell increases its supply of proteins, increases the number of organelles (such as mitochondria, ribosomes), and grows in size. (wikipedia.org)
  • The MPF is also called the M phase kinase because of its ability to phosphorylate target proteins at a specific point in the cell cycle and thus control their ability to function. (wikipedia.org)
  • Among Harlow's discoveries was the demonstration that the retinoblastoma protein interacts with viral transforming proteins, thereby linking tumor viruses with the cell cycle. (wikipedia.org)
  • cytoplasm
  • FCM revealed a dose-dependent increase in cellular refractive index (90' light scatter), decrease in apparent cell volume (axial light loss), and increase in resistance to non-ionic detergent (NP-N)-mediated cytolysis indicative of fixation (protein denaturation, cross-linking, etc.) of the plasma membrane/cytoplasm complex. (docme.ru)
  • Higher dose levels (225 pmol dm-3) induce the formation of wreath-like chromosomal ring structures and progressive perturbation of the cell membrane/cytoplasm complex. (docme.ru)
  • During the final stage, cytokinesis, the chromosomes and cytoplasm separate into two new daughter cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • M phase is itself composed of two tightly coupled processes: karyokinesis, in which the cell's chromosomes are divided, and cytokinesis, in which the cell's cytoplasm divides forming two daughter cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • In 1971, two independent teams of researchers (Yoshio Masui and Clement Markert, as well as Dennis Smith and Robert Ecker) found that frog oocytes arrested in G2 could be induced to enter M phase by microinjection of cytoplasm from oocytes that had been hormonally stimulated with progesterone. (wikipedia.org)
  • At the level of the cell, Daxx is found in the cytoplasm, interacting with Fas-receptor or other cytoplasmic molecules, as well as in the nucleus, where it is interacting with some subnuclear structures. (wikipedia.org)
  • regulators
  • Many of these targets are known cell cycle regulators, although none of these interactions are sufficient to explain the oncogenic potential of this locus. (biomedcentral.com)
  • populations
  • To investigate whether phospholipids are synthesized in the G2/M phase of the cell cycle, protocols were developed to produce synchronized MCF-7 cell populations with greater than 80% of the cells in G1/S or G2/M phases that moved in synchrony following removal of the blocking agent. (biomedsearch.com)
  • In this work we have characterized the intercellular variability of transforming growth factor β-induced Smad interactions, providing essential information about TGF-β signaling and its dependence on the density of cell populations and the cell-cycle phase. (diva-portal.org)
  • The cell cycle hypothesis of AD proposes that the disease is caused by aberrant re-entry of different neuronal populations into the cell division cycle, following a 2-hit hypothesis (Nagy et al. (wikipedia.org)
  • transcription
  • SAMHD1 was identified as the cellular protein responsible of the reverse transcription block to HIV-1 infection observed in myeloid cells as well as in quiescent CD4+ T cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • In prokaryotic cells, which have no nuclear compartment, the processes of transcription and translation may be linked together without clear separation. (wikipedia.org)
  • It has been associated with heterochromatin and PML-NBs (Promyelocytic Leukaemia nuclear bodies) and has been implicated in many nuclear processes including transcription and cell cycle regulation. (wikipedia.org)
  • different
  • Analysis of the activities of key phosphatidylcholine and phosphatidylethanolamine biosynthetic enzymes in subcellular fractions obtained from MCF-7 cells at different cell cycle phases revealed that there was robust activity of key enzymes in the fractions prepared from MCF-7 cells in G2/M phase. (biomedsearch.com)
  • The ratio of cells within the different phases can be calculated using this assay supplemented by visible evidence from photomicrographs. (tebu-bio.com)
  • Heat production of Reuber H35 rat hepatoma cells and murine C1300 neuroblastoma cells at different stages of the cell cycle were measured microcalorimetrically. (uu.nl)
  • The duration of G1 is highly variable, even among different cells of the same species. (wikipedia.org)
  • 1998
  • 1998). The cell cycle hypothesis of AD also attempts to explain for the characteristic senile plaques and the neurofibrillary tangles of AD pathology. (wikipedia.org)
  • neurons
  • Neurons typically remain in G0, a nondividing, nonreplicating phase of the cell cycle. (wikipedia.org)
  • 2005). Thus, the cell-cycle hypothesis of Alzheimer's disease considers AD as a disease of deregulation of the cell cycle in neurons. (wikipedia.org)
  • Many subscribers to the 2-hit hypothesis of AD argue that the best strategy towards AD prevention appears to be the prevention of neurons from leaving G0 phase and entering the abnormal G1 associated with AD. (wikipedia.org)
  • myeloid
  • Other studies demonstrated that silencing SAMHD1 enhanced HIV-1 and SIV Δvpx infection of myeloid cells, also enhances HIV-1 infection of resting CD4+ T cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • SAMHD1 inhibits HIV-1 infection in myeloid cells by limiting the intracellular pool of dNTPs. (wikipedia.org)
  • relatively
  • Heat production of G1-cells was relatively continuous during the experiment, in contrast to S-phase cells that showed a decrease in heat production after an initial maximum. (uu.nl)
  • Both processes occur late and involve relatively few cells. (biologists.org)
  • tumor
  • Exogenous PUFA and a TRPC3 antagonist regularly attenuated breasts cancer tumor cell proliferation and migration, recommending a mechanism where PUFA restrains the breasts cancer partially via its inhibition of TRPC stations. (cancercurehere.com)
  • Additionally, our outcomes also claim that TRPC3 shows up as a fresh mediator of breasts cancer tumor cell migration/invasion and represents a potential focus on for a fresh course of anticancer agent. (cancercurehere.com)
  • Within this research, we discovered the functional appearance of TRPC3 in individual MCF-7 breasts cancer tumor cell-mediated Ca2+ entrance. (cancercurehere.com)
  • Ca2+ entrance via turned on TRPC was improved when PUFA had been absent, recommending a double-gating system for Danshensu TRPC which may be involved with MCF breasts cancer tumor cell proliferation and invasion. (cancercurehere.com)
  • This study will also look at specific substances called biomarkers in your blood, and in the tumor tissue which are involved in the growth of tumor cells, and determine if the levels of these biomarkers are related to your response to treatment or development of side effects. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • Melflufen is a peptidase enhanced cytotoxic (PEnC) with a targeted delivery within tumor cells of melphalan, a widely used classical chemotherapeutic belonging to a group of alkylating agents developed more than 50 years ago. (wikipedia.org)
  • In a Phase 1/2 trial, in solid tumor patients refractory to standard therapy, response evaluation showed disease stabilization in a majority of patients. (wikipedia.org)
  • senescent cells
  • Although senescent cells can no longer replicate, they remain metabolically active and commonly adopt an immunogenic phenotype consisting of a pro-inflammatory secretome, the up-regulation of immune ligands, a pro-survival response, promiscuous gene expression (pGE) and stain positive for senescence-associated β-galactosidase activity. (wikipedia.org)
  • The nucleus of senescent cells is characterized by senescence-associated heterochromatin foci (SAHF) and DNA segments with chromatin alterations reinforcing senescence (DNA-SCARS). (wikipedia.org)
  • Senescent cells affect tumour suppression, wound healing and possibly embryonic/placental development and a pathological role in age-related diseases. (wikipedia.org)
  • The experimental elimination of senescent cells from transgenic progeroid mice and non-progeroid, naturally-aged mice led to greater resistance against aging-associated diseases. (wikipedia.org)
  • The word "post-mitotic" is sometimes used to refer to both quiescent and senescent cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • gene
  • In contrast to the pacemaker neurons, in which the circadian oscillations of clock gene expression what time should you take spironolactone self-sustained for many days in DD, oscillations in the peripheral clocks decline after several cycles in DD. (luxbar-starway.ru)
  • Other studies showed that lack of Daxx gene caused a higher apoptotic rate in embryonic stem cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • These gene products are important in determining cell fates during normal development and in maintaining homeostasis, or they can lead to de-regulated growth in disorders like cancer by responding to mutations in β-catenin, APC or Axin, each of which can lead to this de-regulated β-catenin level stabilization in cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • The protein encoded by this gene is a nucleolar antigen expressed in proliferating cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • M-phase inducer phosphatase 3 is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the CDC25C gene. (wikipedia.org)
  • This gene is highly conserved during evolution and it plays a key role in the regulation of cell division. (wikipedia.org)
  • biochemical
  • Coat colour in mammals is determined by the presence, distribution and biochemical activity of the melanocytes, which are specialized cells where eumelanins (black/brown pigments) and pheomelanins (yellow/red pigments) are synthesized. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Biochemical triggers known as cyclin-dependent kinases (Cdks) switch on cell cycles events at the corrected time and in the correct order to prevent any mistakes. (wikipedia.org)
  • 2000
  • Cells had been transfected with hCOX2 by Lipofectamine 2000. (cancercurehere.com)
  • 2000 ). Because GadA and GadB are intracellular enzymes, and most MSG are out of the cells, the recombinant E. coli cells have to be specially treated by sonication, ethyl acetate, toluene, and thermal activation to increase the permeability (Zhao et al. (springeropen.com)
  • cellular
  • Aging of the hair follicle appears to be primed by a sustained cellular response to the DNA damage that accumulates in renewing stem cells during aging. (neograftofcharleston.com)
  • In patients diagnosed with melanoma, about 40-60% carry mutations in BRAF [ 4 ], which can lead to increased cellular proliferation and increased oncogenic cell activity [ 5 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • While less attention is directed at α-catenin in studies involving cell adhesion, it is nonetheless an important player in cellular organization, function and growth. (wikipedia.org)
  • Mice lacking plakoglobin have cell adhesion defects in many tissues, although β-catenin substitutes for plakoglobin at many cellular junctions. (wikipedia.org)
  • Cellular senescence is the phenomenon by which normal diploid cells cease to divide. (wikipedia.org)
  • As such, cellular senescence represents a change in "cell state" rather than a cell becoming "aged" as the name confusingly suggests. (wikipedia.org)
  • Consistent with this, telomerase-immortalised cells continued to age (according to the epigenetic clock) without having been treated with any senescence inducers or DNA-damaging agents, re-affirming the independence of the process of epigenetic ageing from telomeres, cellular senescence, and the DNA damage response pathway. (wikipedia.org)
  • tissues
  • Pasireotide works by binding to a protein called somatostatin receptor, which is expressed in many tissues throughout the body including thyroid cancer cells. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • As these molecules are vital for life, metabolic reactions either focus on making these molecules during the construction of cells and tissues, or by breaking them down and using them as a source of energy, by their digestion. (wikipedia.org)
  • fluorescence
  • Adjustments in the Ca2+ focus had been indicated as F/F, where F was the fluorescence strength when cells had been at rest, and F was the modification in fluorescence during excitement. (cancercurehere.com)
  • clinical
  • Working closely with a clinical team use of these accurate models are essential to start early phase clinical trials. (pitt.edu)
  • Phase I clinical and pharmacokinetic study of PNU166945, Zweiter band. (luxbar-starway.ru)
  • dormant
  • After a vertebrate cell has been in the G1 phase for about three hours, the cell enters a restriction point in which it is decided whether the cell will move forward with the G1 phase or move into the dormant G0 phase. (wikipedia.org)
  • Organisms can synchronize entry to a dormant phase with their environment through predictive or consequential means. (wikipedia.org)
  • Predictive dormancy occurs when an organism enters a dormant phase before the onset of adverse conditions. (wikipedia.org)
  • Consequential dormancy occurs when organisms enter a dormant phase after adverse conditions have arisen. (wikipedia.org)
  • Specifically, hydrogen cyanamide stimulates cell division and growth in dormant plants, causing budbreak when the plant is on the edge of breaking dormancy. (wikipedia.org)
  • terminal
  • Peak 7-hydroxyperphenazine concentrations were observed between 2 to 4 hours with a terminal phase half-life ranging between 9.9 to 18.8 hours. (nih.gov)
  • Proteolysis of collagen leads to elimination of the damaged cells and then to terminal hair follicle miniaturization. (neograftofcharleston.com)
  • regulation
  • It has been associated with heterochromatin and PML-NBs (Promyelocytic Leukaemia nuclear bodies) and has been implicated in many nuclear processes including transcription and cell cycle regulation. (wikipedia.org)
  • Human
  • Evaluation of cytotoxicity in Human noncancer cells indicated that the compounds 3i and 3m were practically ineffective in quiescent peripheral blood lymphocytes, and may have a selective antiproliferative activity against cancer cells. (deepdyve.com)
  • Gorczyca W, Traganos F, Jesionowska H, Darzynkiewicz Z. Presence of DNA strand breaks and increased sensitivity of DNA in situ to denaturation in abnormal human sperm cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • It is a peptidase enhanced cytotoxic (PEnC) that exerts a targeted delivery of melphalan in cells with high expression of aminopeptidases, such as aminopeptidase N, which has been described as over-expressed in human malignancies. (wikipedia.org)
  • In a human Phase 1 trial, no dose-limiting toxicities (DLTs) were observed at lower doses. (wikipedia.org)
  • However, for missions to the Moon, establishment of a lunar base, and interplanetary travel to Mars, the functional requirements for human performance during each specific phase of these missions have not been sufficiently defined to determine whether currently developed countermeasures are adequate to meet physical performance requirements. (wikipedia.org)
  • activation
  • Cells can also be induced to senesce via DNA damage in response to elevated reactive oxygen species (ROS), activation of oncogenes and cell-cell fusion, independent of telomere length. (wikipedia.org)
  • Activation of each phase is dependent on the proper progression and completion of the previous one. (wikipedia.org)
  • mRNA
  • Overexpression of p120 leads to malignant transformation of 3T3 cells while treatment with antisense p120 mRNA causes the transformed cells to revert to their original non-malignant phenotype. (wikipedia.org)
  • nuclear
  • When the cell is treated with TGF-β, HIPK2, a nuclear kinase, phosphorylates Daxx and the activated Daxx in turn activates the JNK pathway (see "The Daxx Pathway" figure). (wikipedia.org)
  • The cell's nuclear DNA contents are duplicated during S phase. (wikipedia.org)
  • vascular
  • In addition, there are cardiopulmonary and vascular changes, including a significant decrease in red blood cell mass, that affect skeletal muscle function. (wikipedia.org)
  • indicate
  • For instance, when an epithelial layer is complete and the adherens junctions indicate that the cell is surrounded, β-catenin may play a role in telling the cell to stop proliferating, as there is no room for more cells in the area. (wikipedia.org)
  • intracellular
  • First of all, by binding to cadherin receptor intracellular cytoplasmic tail domains, it can act as an integral component of a protein complex in adherens junctions that helps cells maintain epithelial layers. (wikipedia.org)
  • organisms
  • Metabolism (from Greek: μεταβολή metabolē, "change") is the set of life-sustaining chemical transformations within the cells of organisms. (wikipedia.org)
  • For example, the set of carboxylic acids that are best known as the intermediates in the citric acid cycle are present in all known organisms, being found in species as diverse as the unicellular bacterium Escherichia coli and huge multicellular organisms like elephants. (wikipedia.org)
  • Organisms of some taxonomic groups, including some animals, experience chronological decrease in mortality, for all or part of their life cycle. (wikipedia.org)
  • occur
  • In the elephant two distinct LH surges occur 3 wk apart during the nonluteal phase To examine long-term dynamics of hor- 1. (villa-agata.eu)
  • known
  • Within the cell cycle, there is a stringent set of regulations known as the cell cycle control system that controls the timing and coordination of the phases to ensure a correct order of events. (wikipedia.org)
  • After R and before S, the cell is known as being in G1-ps, or the pre S phase interval of the G1 phase. (wikipedia.org)
  • The expansion of the pressurized liquid causes the surrounding area to cool (known as the Joule-Thomson effect) and the phase change of the liquid to gas also causes the surrounding area to cool. (wikipedia.org)
  • inhibition
  • Over-expression of PPARδ also sensitised THP-1 cells to phorbol ester and correspondingly, inhibition of PPARδ by anti-sense RNA completely abolished this response. (biomedcentral.com)
  • β-catenin acts by anchoring the actin cytoskeleton to the junctions, and may possibly aid in contact inhibition signaling within the cell. (wikipedia.org)
  • citation needed] The injury is associated with the inhibition of catalase, which in turn stimulates the pentose phosphate cycle. (wikipedia.org)
  • enter
  • Most nonproliferating vertebrate cells will enter the G0 phase. (wikipedia.org)
  • Some of these cells come from blood vessels that enter the tendon to provide direct blood flow to increase healing. (wikipedia.org)
  • Non-proliferative (non-dividing) cells in multicellular eukaryotes generally enter the quiescent G0 state from G1 and may remain quiescent for long periods of time, possibly indefinitely (as is often the case for neurons). (wikipedia.org)
  • Before a cell can enter cell division, it needs to take in nutrients. (wikipedia.org)
  • Components
  • Components and strategies Cell lifestyle MCF-7 cells had been grown up in DMEM moderate filled with 10% fetal leg serum and 1% penicillin/streptomycin serum as defined (9). (cancercurehere.com)
  • humans
  • There are sixteen variants of histone H2B found in humans, thirteen of which are expressed in regular body cells and three of which are only expressed in the testes. (wikipedia.org)