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  • proteins
  • Cell surface markers are proteins expressed on the surface of cells that often conveniently serve as markers of specific cell types. (qiagen.com)
  • Cytokines, small signaling proteins secreted primarily by immune cells, activate inter- and intracellular signaling during immune responses. (qiagen.com)
  • Antigen presenting cells (APCs) ingest pathogens and digest their proteins into antigens. (qiagen.com)
  • The exact cause of cancer has not been identified but it is thought of as a disturbance in cell signaling pathways that gradually affects proteins that regulate cell life and activity. (turmericforhealth.com)
  • Its ability to interact with various proteins and regulate their activity helps in preventing proliferation and invasion of cancerous cells. (turmericforhealth.com)
  • As the eukaryotic cell cycle is a complex process, eukaryotes have evolved a network of regulatory proteins, known as the cell cycle control system, which monitors and dictates the progression of the cell through the cell cycle. (wikipedia.org)
  • Overexpression of the recombinant heat shock proteins (Hsp) Hsp27 or Hsp72 was shown by several groups to protect cells from genotoxic stresses, including radiation and topoisomerase inhibitors ( 9 - 11 ). (aacrjournals.org)
  • DNA is genetic material that holds the code for all the proteins of the cell. (cinergee.com.au)
  • Because of the ease with which proteins can be phosphorylated and dephosphorylated, this type of modification is a flexible mechanism for cells to respond to external signals and environmental conditions. (wikipedia.org)
  • In this phase, the cell increases its supply of proteins, increases the number of organelles (such as mitochondria, ribosomes), and grows in size. (wikipedia.org)
  • Runx2 is responsible for inducing the differentiation of multipotent mesenchymal cells into immature osteoblasts, as well as activating expression of several key downstream proteins that maintain osteoblast differentiation and bone matrix genes. (wikipedia.org)
  • Once in S phase, cyclin-Cdks phosphorylate several factors on the replication complex promoting DNA replication by causing inhibitory proteins to fall off of replication complexes or through activation of components on the replication complex to induce DNA replication initiation. (wikipedia.org)
  • Smads (or SMADs) comprise a family of structurally similar proteins that are the main signal transducers for receptors of the transforming growth factor beta (TGF-B) superfamily, which are critically important for regulating cell development and growth. (wikipedia.org)
  • CD4 specific Designed Ankyrin Repeat Proteins (DARPins) potently block viral entry of diverse strains and are being developed and studied as potential microbicide candidates A polyclonal caprine antibody is in phase II human clinical trials that targets, among others sites, the GP41 transmembrane glycoprotein. (wikipedia.org)
  • PML phosphorylation triggers further modification through the attachment of SUMO proteins to the RING domain by UBC9 SUMO-conjugating enzyme, which occurs in a cell cycle dependent way. (wikipedia.org)
  • The ORC, Cdc6, and Cdt1 together are required for the stable association of the minichromosome maintenance (Mcm 2-7) complex proteins with replicative origins during G1 phase of the cell cycle. (wikipedia.org)
  • eukaryotes
  • In cells with a nucleus, as in eukaryotes, the cell cycle is also divided into three periods: interphase, the mitotic (M) phase, and cytokinesis. (wikipedia.org)
  • Non-proliferative (non-dividing) cells in multicellular eukaryotes generally enter the quiescent G0 state from G1 and may remain quiescent for long periods of time, possibly indefinitely (as is often the case for neurons). (wikipedia.org)
  • In eukaryotes, there are two distinct types of cell division: a vegetative division, whereby each daughter cell is genetically identical to the parent cell (mitosis), and a reproductive cell division, whereby the number of chromosomes in the daughter cells is reduced by half to produce haploid gametes (meiosis). (wikipedia.org)
  • cellular
  • The cellular response to DNA damage is immediate and highly coordinated in order to maintain genome integrity and proper cell division. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Brain tumors, uncontrolled cellular growth in the cranium or spinal column, arise from any of the cell types found in the brain, such as neurons, glial cells, astrocytes, or cells of the meninges. (qiagen.com)
  • These cells acquire a large and flat cellular appearance, decrease contacts with other cells, and increase adhesion to the extracellular matrix. (qiagen.com)
  • fig.1) With each cellular division the telomeres shorten by being trimmed off during each cell cycle, until eventually the whole telomere disappears. (cinergee.com.au)
  • PML-NBs are known to have a number of regulatory cellular functions, including involvement in programmed cell death, genome stability, antiviral effects and controlling cell division. (wikipedia.org)
  • pathways
  • Biological pathways that, when dysregulated, allow cells to grow. (qiagen.com)
  • A study published in Biofactors, 2013 states that curcumin's anti-cancer action is a result of inhibition of cell signaling pathways at multiple levels. (turmericforhealth.com)
  • The Cignal E2F Reporter Assay Kit is designed to monitor the activity of E2F-regulated signaling pathways in cultured cells. (qiagen.com)
  • mitotic
  • This, in turn, results in high accidence of mitotic catastrophe and increased sensitivity of cancer cells to various genotoxic drugs (see, e.g., refs. (aacrjournals.org)
  • During the mitotic phase, the chromosomes separate. (wikipedia.org)
  • The word "post-mitotic" is sometimes used to refer to both quiescent and senescent cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Some cells enter the G0 phase semi-permanently and are considered post-mitotic, e.g., some liver, kidney, and stomach cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Interphase is further broken down into the G1 (GAP 1) phase, S (Synthesis) phase, G2 (GAP 2) phase and the mitotic (M) phase which in turn is broken down into mitosis and cytokinesis. (wikipedia.org)
  • On a larger scale, mitotic cell division can create progeny from multicellular organisms, such as plants that grow from cuttings. (wikipedia.org)
  • Mitotic cell division enables sexually reproducing organisms to develop from the one-celled zygote, which itself was produced by meiotic cell division from gametes. (wikipedia.org)
  • regulatory
  • Regulatory roles of phosphorylation include: Phosphorylation of Na+/K+-ATPase during the transport of sodium (Na+) and potassium (K+) ions across the cell membrane in osmoregulation to maintain homeostasis of the body's water content. (wikipedia.org)
  • In osteoblasts, the levels of Runx2 is highest in G1 phase and is lowest in S, G2, and M. The comprehensive cell cycle regulatory mechanisms that Runx2 may play are still unknown, although it is generally accepted that the varying activity and levels of Runx2 throughout the cell cycle contribute to cell cycle entry and exit, as well as cell cycle progression. (wikipedia.org)
  • In G1 phase of the cell cycle, many of the DNA replication regulatory processes are initiated. (wikipedia.org)
  • activation
  • These events are coordinated with global changes in transcriptional patterns and DNA repair activation to ensure that the cell cycle progresses and DNA replication resumes once the damage is repaired. (biomedcentral.com)
  • al have identified multiple molecular targets such as activation of tumor suppressor genes, activation of cell death genes etc. that curcumin acts upon to prevent cancer. (turmericforhealth.com)
  • Activation of each phase is dependent on the proper progression and completion of the previous one. (wikipedia.org)
  • dependent
  • In this study, we examined the functions of TOFA in human renal cell carcinoma (RCC) cell lines ACHN and 786-O. According to the results, TOFA inhibited ACHN and 786-O cell growth in a concentration and time dependent manner. (jcancer.org)
  • chromosomes
  • A cell nucleus, during cell division or mitosis, contains chromosomes. (cinergee.com.au)
  • During the final stage, cytokinesis, the chromosomes and cytoplasm separate into two new daughter cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Before division can occur, the genomic information that is stored in chromosomes must be replicated, and the duplicated genome must be separated cleanly between cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • In S phase, the chromosomes are replicated in order for the genetic content to be maintained. (wikipedia.org)
  • Metaphase is the stage in cell division when the chromosomes line up in the middle of the cell by MTOCs ( microtubule organizing center) by pushing and pulling on centromeres of both chromatids which causes the chromosome to move to the center. (wikipedia.org)
  • In eukaryotic cells the SAC serves as the central surveillance mechanism to ensure chromosomes are being passed on to the next generation in a reliable manner. (wikipedia.org)
  • transcriptional
  • Following entry to S-phase and initiation of DNA replication, S-phase cyclin A, a transcriptional target of E2F1-3, forms a complex with CDK2 which phosphorylates E2F1-3 and prevents its ability to bind to DNA, thus forming a negative feedback loop. (wikipedia.org)
  • This is often controlled via oscillating levels of Runx2 within throughout cell cycle due to regulated degradation and transcriptional activity. (wikipedia.org)
  • membrane
  • VIR-576 is a synthesized peptide which binds to gp41, preventing fusion of the virus with a cell membrane. (wikipedia.org)
  • precursor cells
  • Additionally, under defined conditions, embryonic stem cells are capable of propagating themselves indefinitely in an undifferentiated state and have the capacity when provided with the appropriate signals to differentiate, presumably via the formation of precursor cells, to almost all mature cell phenotypes. (wikipedia.org)
  • synthesis
  • Acetyl-CoA-carboxylase-α (ACCA), located in cell cytoplasm, is a key rate-limiting enzyme in the process of fatty acid synthesis, while ACCB controls fatty acid oxidation progression. (jcancer.org)
  • The inhibitors or small interfering RNA of ACCA can block fatty acid synthesis, induced cell cycle arresting and cell growth inhibition in many types of human cancer cells, such as prostate cancer [ 9 ] and non-small-cell lung cancer [ 10 ]. (jcancer.org)
  • TOFA can block the synthesis of fatty acids, thus restraining the synthesis of phosphatidylcholine, which involved in the generation of cell membranes [ 11 ]. (jcancer.org)
  • We conclude that hypoxia disrupts coordination of DNA synthesis and E3 ligase activities associated with cell-cycle progression, and that DSB repair could greatly influence cell-cycle kinetics and clonogenic survival after hypoxia/reoxygenation. (ovid.com)
  • After complete synthesis of its DNA, the cell enters the G2 phase where it continues to grow in preparation for mitosis. (wikipedia.org)
  • As with most processes in the body, the cell cycle is highly regulated to prevent the synthesis of mutated cells and uncontrolled cell division that leads to tumor formation. (wikipedia.org)
  • DNA polymerases isolated from cells and artificial DNA primers can be used to initiate DNA synthesis at known sequences in a template DNA molecule. (wikipedia.org)
  • gene
  • All organisms exposed to sunlight possess a diurnal biological clock that controls a circadian rhythm of gene expression changes in most cell types. (qiagen.com)
  • Telomerase is is coded as a gene in every cell, but is switched off following birth. (cinergee.com.au)
  • Furthermore, Runx2 controls the gene expression of cyclin D2, D3, and the CDK inhibitor p21(cip1) in hematopoietic cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • The trials may one day lead to treatments that might halt, and possibly even reverse, the effects of Stargardt disease using stem cell therapy, gene therapy, or pharmacotherapy. (wikipedia.org)
  • cytoplasm
  • After duplicate DNA is separated on opposite ends of the cell, the cytoplasm of the cell is split in two during cytokinesis resulting in two daughter cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • PML is translated in the cytoplasm of the cell, but its N-terminus contains a nuclear localization signal which causes its import to the nucleus. (wikipedia.org)
  • targets
  • Turmeric and curcumin act on multiple molecular targets to defeat and kill cancer cells. (turmericforhealth.com)
  • Entry inhibitors (or fusion inhibitors) interfere with binding, fusion and entry of HIV-1 to the host cell by blocking one of several targets. (wikipedia.org)
  • cancer
  • This disturbance causes the cells to be immortal and hyperproliferative and thus cancer spreads throughout the body. (turmericforhealth.com)
  • Chemoprevention involves administration of various agents that prevent potential premalignant cells from developing into cancer. (turmericforhealth.com)
  • Turmeric and curcumin can also help prevent cancer by arresting growth of premalignant cells. (turmericforhealth.com)
  • Cancer cells detach from the primary origin and travel via the blood and lymph. (turmericforhealth.com)
  • However, many cancer cells eventually develop resistance compromising the benefits of these therapies. (aacrjournals.org)
  • The only time telomerase is activated after this is in cancer cells, where for some unknown reason the telomeres do not shorten, making them immortal, they do not stop dividing and they do not die. (cinergee.com.au)
  • The study's primary endpoint was progression-free survival (i.e. the time until the cancer recurs). (wikipedia.org)
  • According to Jatin Shah, an assistant professor at University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, the primary adverse effect of treatment with filanesib observed in trials conducted thus far is reversible neutropenia, though it is possible that it may cause low blood cell counts as well. (wikipedia.org)
  • However, there is increasing evidence that suggests MAP4K4 has an important role in the development and progression of cancer, and may serve as a novel target for cancer therapeutics. (wikipedia.org)
  • differentiate
  • Embryonic stem cells, derived from the blastocyst stage early mammalian embryos, are distinguished by their ability to differentiate into any cell type and by their ability to propagate. (wikipedia.org)
  • Embryonic stem cells of the inner cell mass are pluripotent, that is, they are able to differentiate to generate primitive ectoderm, which ultimately differentiates during gastrulation into all derivatives of the three primary germ layers: ectoderm, endoderm, and mesoderm. (wikipedia.org)
  • According to a 2002 article in PNAS, "Human embryonic stem cells have the potential to differentiate into various cell types, and, thus, may be useful as a source of cells for transplantation or tissue engineering. (wikipedia.org)
  • progresses
  • As the cell progresses through G1, depending on internal and external conditions, it can either delay G1, enter a quiescent state known as G0, or proceed past the restriction point. (wikipedia.org)
  • HeLa
  • In this study, we investigated cell-cycle kinetics and clonogenic survival after hypoxia/reoxygenation in HeLa cells expressing fluorescent ubiquitination-based cell cycle indicator (Fucci). (ovid.com)
  • pathway
  • First, via the generally error-prone non-homologues end joining (NHEJ) pathway which is primarily facilitating repair in G1 and at the start of S-phase. (uu.nl)
  • Second, the error-free homologues recombination (HR) repair of DSBs takes place in S-phase and G2 as the availability of a homologous sequence, for instance the sister-chromatid, is essential for DNA repair via this pathway. (uu.nl)
  • signals
  • Ubiquitination of the inhibitor signals the SCF/proteasome to degrade the inhibitor releasing and allowing the S phase cyclin-Cdk to become activated and the cell moves into S phase. (wikipedia.org)
  • The Cardiac contractility modulation treatment is delivered by a pacemaker-like device that applies non-excitatory electrical signals NES, adjusted to and synchronized with the electrical action in the cardiac cycle. (wikipedia.org)
  • In this phase of the cardiac cycle, electrical signals cannot trigger new cardiac muscle contractions, hence this type of stimulation is known as a non-excitatory stimulation. (wikipedia.org)
  • However, the electrical signals increase the influx of calcium ions into the cardiac muscle cells (cardiomyocytes). (wikipedia.org)
  • processes
  • Nuclear factor kappa B is the master target behind inflammatory processes and also plays a vital role in cell development. (turmericforhealth.com)
  • This system acts like a timer, or a clock, which sets a fixed amount of time for the cell to spend in each phase of the cell cycle, while at the same time it also responds to information received from the processes it controls. (wikipedia.org)
  • Replication processes permit the copying of a single DNA double helix into two DNA helices, which are divided into the daughter cells at mitosis. (wikipedia.org)
  • inhibitor
  • 5-Tetradecyloxy-2-furoic acid (TOFA) is a cell-permeable small molecule and also an allosteric inhibitor of ACCA. (jcancer.org)
  • After the cell has grown and is ready to synthesize DNA, G1 cyclin-Cdks phosphorylate the S phase cyclin inhibitor signaling ubiquitination, resulting in the addition of groups to the inhibitor. (wikipedia.org)
  • embryonic
  • This allows embryonic stem cells to be employed as useful tools for both research and regenerative medicine, because they can produce limitless numbers of themselves for continued research or clinical use. (wikipedia.org)
  • Because of their plasticity and potentially unlimited capacity for self-renewal, embryonic stem cell therapies have been proposed for regenerative medicine and tissue replacement after injury or disease. (wikipedia.org)
  • Embryonic stem cells provide hope that it will be possible to overcome the problems of donor tissue shortage and also, by making the cells immunocompatible with the recipient. (wikipedia.org)
  • Other potential uses of embryonic stem cells include investigation of early human development, study of genetic disease and as in vitro systems for toxicology testing. (wikipedia.org)
  • development and progression
  • In one case study, a patient with advanced metastatic vulvar epithelioid sarcoma showed a partial resolution of both lung and pleural metastases when pazopanib was administered, whereas all other therapies had failed MET (mesenchymal to epithelial transition) is another biological pathway that is likely involved in the development and progression of epithelioid sarcoma. (wikipedia.org)
  • Amplification or over-expression of this oncogene has been shown to play an important role in the development and progression of certain aggressive types of breast cancer. (wikipedia.org)
  • germ
  • The ovaries are the glands containing the germ cells or eggs. (muzeumpp.eu)
  • HER2 is co-localised, and, most of the time, co-amplified with the gene GRB7, which is a proto-oncogene associated with breast, testicular germ cell, gastric, and eosophageal tumours. (wikipedia.org)
  • chromosome
  • Metaphase is the stage in cell division when the chromosomes line up in the middle of the cell by MTOCs ( microtubule organizing center) by pushing and pulling on centromeres of both chromatids which causes the chromosome to move to the center. (wikipedia.org)
  • docetaxel
  • The first direct comparison of treating nonsquamous lung cancer with either pemetrexed or docetaxel in addition to cisplatin has shown that the two combinations achieve similar progression-free survival, although docetaxel was associated with more frequent adverse events. (oncologynurseadvisor.com)
  • In the study, researchers randomly assigned patients with chemotherapy-naïve cancer to 3-weekly cisplatin 70 mg/m 2 in addition to either docetaxel 60 mg/m 2 or pemetrexed 500 mg/m 2 for up to four cycles. (oncologynurseadvisor.com)
  • They recorded a median progression-free survival of 4.7 months in those who received the pemetrexed combination, and 4.6 months among those who received docetaxel. (oncologynurseadvisor.com)
  • However, the pemetrexed plus cisplatin arm was less toxic than the docetaxel plus cisplatin arm, while there was no significant difference in progression-free survival and response rate," Kim said. (oncologynurseadvisor.com)
  • The in vitro testing conducted by M.D. Anderson and Baylor researchers compared the use of docetaxel alone with the combination use of docetaxel and MK-0457, against two lines of chemosensitive ovarian cancer cells. (libbyshope.com)
  • Combination treatment with docetaxel and MK-0457 resulted in significantly improved reduction in tumor growth, as well as a threefold increase in cell death, as compared to docetaxel monotherapy. (libbyshope.com)
  • tumor cells
  • Unfortunately, these compounds act not only on proliferating tumor cells, but exhibit significant side effects on non-proliferating or normal cells. (libbyshope.com)
  • Given the potential selectivity to target tumor cells while leaving normal cells unaffected, several " AK inhibitors " have been developed by various drug companies. (libbyshope.com)
  • vitro
  • Cell cycle and differentiation In vitro experiments using both human and mouse cell lines have shown that EVI1 prevents the terminal differentiation of bone marrow progenitor cells to granulocytes and erythroid cells, however it favors the differentiation of hematopoietic cell to megakaryocytes. (wikipedia.org)
  • The chimeric gene of AML1-MDS1-EVI1 (AME) formed by the chromosomal translocation (3;21)(q26;q22) has also been shown in vitro to upregulate the cell cycle and block granulocytic differentiation of murine hematopoietic cells, as well as to delay the myeloid differentiation of bone marrow progenitors. (wikipedia.org)
  • They form characteristic cell clusters in suspension culture that express a set of genes associated with pluripotency and can differentiate into endodermal, ectodermal and mesodermal cells both in vitro and in vivo. (wikipedia.org)
  • quiescent
  • As the cell progresses through G1, depending on internal and external conditions, it can either delay G1, enter a quiescent state known as G0, or proceed past the restriction point. (wikipedia.org)
  • mammalian
  • The G1 checkpoint, also known as the restriction point in mammalian cells and the start point in yeast, is the point at which the cell becomes committed to entering the cell cycle. (wikipedia.org)
  • Cellular
  • The foregoing changes--of structural organization and metabolic functioning at the cell level driven by genetic instability, physical and chemical forces, and in developmental and dynamic organization at the population level driven by the forces of natural selection--are not well understood in spite of the plethora of advances in molecular and cellular biology that have occurred over the last five decades. (biomedcentral.com)
  • All of these involve erratic cellular development and differentiation in the bone marrow leading to dramatic alterations in the normal population of blood cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • It is known that intracellular proteases called caspases degrade the cellular contents of the cell by proteolysis upon activation of the death pathway. (wikipedia.org)
  • As this tumor suppressor is commonly inactivated in epithelioid sarcoma, cell division can fail to appropriately halt, resulting in unregulated cellular growth and the formation of cancer tumors. (wikipedia.org)
  • ovaries
  • It is simply a biological phase experienced by women, when they reached a certain age in their life, and is described as the permanent cessation of the main functions of the female ovaries. (thesilverbird.com)
  • progenitor
  • They are classified as either totipotent (iTC), pluripotent (iPSC) or progenitor (multipotent-iMSC, also called an induced multipotent progenitor cell-iMPC) or unipotent-(iUSC) according to their developmental potential and degree of dedifferentiation. (wikipedia.org)
  • nuclei
  • hESCs can be generated by SCNT using dermal fibroblasts nuclei from both a middle-aged 35-year-old male and an elderly, 75-year-old male, suggesting that age-associated changes are not necessarily an impediment to SCNT-based nuclear reprogramming of human cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • NSCLC
  • The open-label phase III trial included 149 patients with nonsquamous non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) conducted at 14 centers in South Korea. (oncologynurseadvisor.com)
  • HER2 mutations have been found in non-small-cell lung cancers (NSCLC) and can direct treatment. (wikipedia.org)
  • transcription
  • EVI1 is a nuclear transcription factor involved in many signaling pathways for both coexpression and coactivation of cell cycle genes. (wikipedia.org)
  • Eukaryotic transcription is the elaborate process that eukaryotic cells use to copy genetic information stored in DNA into units of RNA replica. (wikipedia.org)
  • Long and structurally disordered, the CTD contains multiple repeats of heptapeptide sequence YSPTSPS that are subject to phosphorylation and other posttranslational modifications during the transcription cycle. (wikipedia.org)
  • Cancer
  • 4 Program in Cancer and Stem Cell Biology, Duke-National University of Singapore (NUS) Medical School, Singapore. (sciencemag.org)
  • Chemotherapeutic drugs that interfere with the normal progression of cell division are used regularly for anti-cancer treatment. (libbyshope.com)
  • There is evidence linking AK overexpression with various types of malignant human cancer cells. (libbyshope.com)
  • The in vivo testing, conducted in mouse models , compared the use of MK-0457 monotherapy against lines of chemosensitive and chemoresistant ovarian cancer cells. (libbyshope.com)
  • The AK inhibitor MK-0457, when used alone, significantly reduced ovarian cancer cell tumor burden . (libbyshope.com)
  • These data suggest survivin might provide a new target for cancer therapy that would discriminate between transformed and normal cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Additionally, NeuVax (Galena Biopharma) is a peptide-based immunotherapy that directs "killer" T cells to target and destroy cancer cells that express HER2. (wikipedia.org)
  • grows
  • In this phase, the cell increases its supply of proteins, increases the number of organelles (such as mitochondria, ribosomes), and grows in size. (wikipedia.org)
  • process
  • It is a normal biological process in the cycle of a female's life and it is bound to happen to every woman at the average age of 50 usually. (thesilverbird.com)
  • The cell division process is one of the hallmarks of every living organism. (libbyshope.com)
  • Within the complete cell-cycle process, mitosis constitutes one of the most critical steps. (libbyshope.com)
  • The cell-division cycle is a vital process by which a single-celled fertilized egg develops into a mature organism, as well as the process by which hair, skin, blood cells, and some internal organs are renewed. (wikipedia.org)
  • Both of these cell division cycles are used in the process of sexual reproduction at some point in their life cycle. (wikipedia.org)
  • The cell cycle is a process in which an ordered set of events leads to the growth and division into two daughter cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • The cell cycle is a cycle rather than a linear process because the two daughter cells produced repeat the cycle. (wikipedia.org)
  • One example is the transformation of iris cells to lens cells in the process of maturation and transformation of retinal pigment epithelium cells into the neural retina during regeneration in adult newt eyes. (wikipedia.org)
  • This process allows the body to replace cells not suitable to new conditions with more suitable new cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • type
  • Peripheral nervous system (PNS) diseases may be further categorized by the type of nerve cell (motor, sensory, or both) affected by the disorder. (wikipedia.org)
  • The M phase, can be either mitosis or meiosis depending on the type of cell. (wikipedia.org)
  • Neu is so named because it was derived from a rodent glioblastoma cell line, a type of neural tumor. (wikipedia.org)
  • The reversible transformation of cells of one differentiated cell type to another is called metaplasia. (wikipedia.org)
  • In newts, muscle tissue is regenerated from specialized muscle cells that dedifferentiate and forget the type of cell they had been. (wikipedia.org)
  • genetic
  • In S phase, the chromosomes are replicated in order for the genetic content to be maintained. (wikipedia.org)
  • The most common genetic mutation (found in 80-90% of epithelioid sarcomas) is the inactivation of the SMARCB1 gene, or the loss of INI-1 function, which is thought to be a major contributor to disease progression. (wikipedia.org)
  • Loss of SMARCB1 function is the most common genetic mutation observed in epithelioid sarcoma, and this dysfunction is likely a major driver of disease progression. (wikipedia.org)
  • stem cells
  • Induced stem cells (iSC) are stem cells derived from somatic, reproductive, pluripotent or other cell types by deliberate epigenetic reprogramming. (wikipedia.org)
  • Some types of mature, specialized adult cells can naturally revert to stem cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • While they normally produce digestive fluids for the stomach, they can revert into stem cells to make temporary repairs to stomach injuries, such as a cut or damage from infection. (wikipedia.org)
  • This capacity to regenerate does not decline with age and may be linked to their ability to make new stem cells from muscle cells on demand. (wikipedia.org)
  • A variety of nontumorigenic stem cells display the ability to generate multiple cell types. (wikipedia.org)
  • For instance, multilineage-differentiating stress-enduring (Muse) cells are stress-tolerant adult human stem cells that can self-renew. (wikipedia.org)
  • clusters
  • HER2 proteins have been shown to form clusters in cell membranes that may play a role in tumorigenesis. (wikipedia.org)
  • maturation
  • Despite intensive studies and interest, the factors that mediate maturation of the intestine and cell renewal remain poorly understood, in part due to the difficulty of accessing and manipulating postembryonic development in mammals. (beds.ac.uk)
  • amino acids
  • Rp9 variant is quite common in human and mouse cells, lacks 9 amino acids in the repression domain. (wikipedia.org)
  • The 145kDa isoform is the most-studied, encoding 1051 amino acids, although there are many EVI1 fusion products detectable in cells expressing EVI1. (wikipedia.org)
  • localization
  • EMT is monitored by changes in cell morphology, loss of E-cadherin localization at cell-cell junctions, and the switched expression of EMT markers, such as loss of epithelial markers E-cadherin and γ-catenin and gain of mesenchymal markers N-cadherin and vimentin. (jove.com)
  • tissue
  • Changes at the population level involve the replacement of one group of cells, which adhere to each other to form a differentiated tissue, by another group of cells, which form a highly heterogeneous and more motile aggregate--a tumor or neoplasm. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Thus, the intestine represents a good model to study both tissue development and cell renewal. (beds.ac.uk)
  • biochemical
  • A recent perspective paper [ 2 ] has eloquently argued that physics has produced the theoretical framework necessary to understand dynamic non-equilibrium systems such as living cells and can be used to integrate knowledge of biochemical and biophysical pathways being generated by cell biology and biochemistry. (biomedcentral.com)