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  • proteins
  • In this phase, the cell increases its supply of proteins, increases the number of organelles (such as mitochondria, ribosomes), and grows in size. (wikipedia.org)
  • In biology, histones are highly alkaline proteins found in eukaryotic cell nuclei that package and order the DNA into structural units called nucleosomes. (wikipedia.org)
  • Among Harlow's discoveries was the demonstration that the retinoblastoma protein interacts with viral transforming proteins, thereby linking tumor viruses with the cell cycle. (wikipedia.org)
  • 1998
  • 1998). The cell cycle hypothesis of AD also attempts to explain for the characteristic senile plaques and the neurofibrillary tangles of AD pathology. (wikipedia.org)
  • cytoplasm
  • During the final stage, cytokinesis, the chromosomes and cytoplasm separate into two new daughter cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • In 1971, two independent teams of researchers (Yoshio Masui and Clement Markert, as well as Dennis Smith and Robert Ecker) found that frog oocytes arrested in G2 could be induced to enter M phase by microinjection of cytoplasm from oocytes that had been hormonally stimulated with progesterone. (wikipedia.org)
  • neurons
  • Non-proliferative (non-dividing) cells in multicellular eukaryotes generally enter the quiescent G0 state from G1 and may remain quiescent for long periods of time, possibly indefinitely (as is often the case for neurons). (wikipedia.org)
  • Neurons typically remain in G0, a nondividing, nonreplicating phase of the cell cycle. (wikipedia.org)
  • 2005). Thus, the cell-cycle hypothesis of Alzheimer's disease considers AD as a disease of deregulation of the cell cycle in neurons. (wikipedia.org)
  • Many subscribers to the 2-hit hypothesis of AD argue that the best strategy towards AD prevention appears to be the prevention of neurons from leaving G0 phase and entering the abnormal G1 associated with AD. (wikipedia.org)
  • somatic
  • In the sense that DNA replication must occur if genetic material is to be provided for the progeny of any cell, whether somatic or reproductive, the copying from DNA to DNA arguably is the fundamental step in the central dogma. (wikipedia.org)
  • Gene
  • The gene coding for the Dbf4 or ASK protein is regulated during the different phases of cell cycle. (wikipedia.org)
  • Complete hydatidiform moles consist only of paternal DNA, and thus the cells lack p57 expression as the gene is paternally imprinted (silenced). (wikipedia.org)
  • The SAMHD1 protein is also known as: AGS5: Aicardi- Goutières syndrome type 5 DCIP: Dendritic cell-derived IFNG-induced protein2 Mg11: Interferon-gamma-inducible protein HDDC1: HD domain containing 1 MOP-5: Monocyte protein 5 SAMH1_HUMAN SBBI88 CHBL2 The gene encoding human SAMHD1 was originally identified in a human dendritic cell cDNA library as an orthologue of a mouse gene IFN-γ-induced gene Mg11. (wikipedia.org)
  • Cdk1
  • During G1 and S phase, the CDK1 subunit of MPF is inactive due to an inhibitory enzyme, Wee1. (wikipedia.org)
  • viruses
  • The dogma classes these into 3 groups of 3: three general transfers (believed to occur normally in most cells), three special transfers (known to occur, but only under specific conditions in case of some viruses or in a laboratory), and three unknown transfers (believed never to occur). (wikipedia.org)
  • infection
  • Through infection, conversion, and assimilation of humans and other organisms, the cells eventually aggregate most of the biosphere of North America into a region seven thousand kilometers wide. (wikipedia.org)
  • Other studies demonstrated that silencing SAMHD1 enhanced HIV-1 and SIV Δvpx infection of myeloid cells, also enhances HIV-1 infection of resting CD4+ T cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • SAMHD1 inhibits HIV-1 infection in myeloid cells by limiting the intracellular pool of dNTPs. (wikipedia.org)
  • role
  • 1995). In the past decade, research has shown that neuronal cell cycle reentry plays a fundamental role in the pathogenesis of AD. (wikipedia.org)
  • Positive feedback loops play a role by switching cells from low to high Cdk-activity. (wikipedia.org)
  • single cell
  • In Blood Music, reality becomes unstable as the number of observers-trillions of intelligent single-cell organisms-spirals higher and higher. (wikipedia.org)
  • include
  • Higher-order structures include the 30 nm fiber (forming an irregular zigzag) and 100 nm fiber, these being the structures found in normal cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • tumor
  • Exogenous PUFA and a TRPC3 antagonist regularly attenuated breasts cancer tumor cell proliferation and migration, recommending a mechanism where PUFA restrains the breasts cancer partially via its inhibition of TRPC stations. (cancercurehere.com)
  • Additionally, our outcomes also claim that TRPC3 shows up as a fresh mediator of breasts cancer tumor cell migration/invasion and represents a potential focus on for a fresh course of anticancer agent. (cancercurehere.com)
  • Within this research, we discovered the functional appearance of TRPC3 in individual MCF-7 breasts cancer tumor cell-mediated Ca2+ entrance. (cancercurehere.com)
  • Ca2+ entrance via turned on TRPC was improved when PUFA had been absent, recommending a double-gating system for Danshensu TRPC which may be involved with MCF breasts cancer tumor cell proliferation and invasion. (cancercurehere.com)
  • This study will also look at specific substances called biomarkers in your blood, and in the tumor tissue which are involved in the growth of tumor cells, and determine if the levels of these biomarkers are related to your response to treatment or development of side effects. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • Melflufen is a peptidase enhanced cytotoxic (PEnC) with a targeted delivery within tumor cells of melphalan, a widely used classical chemotherapeutic belonging to a group of alkylating agents developed more than 50 years ago. (wikipedia.org)
  • In a Phase 1/2 trial, in solid tumor patients refractory to standard therapy, response evaluation showed disease stabilization in a majority of patients. (wikipedia.org)
  • senescent cells
  • Although senescent cells can no longer replicate, they remain metabolically active and commonly adopt an immunogenic phenotype consisting of a pro-inflammatory secretome, the up-regulation of immune ligands, a pro-survival response, promiscuous gene expression (pGE) and stain positive for senescence-associated β-galactosidase activity. (wikipedia.org)
  • The nucleus of senescent cells is characterized by senescence-associated heterochromatin foci (SAHF) and DNA segments with chromatin alterations reinforcing senescence (DNA-SCARS). (wikipedia.org)
  • Senescent cells affect tumour suppression, wound healing and possibly embryonic/placental development and a pathological role in age-related diseases. (wikipedia.org)
  • The experimental elimination of senescent cells from transgenic progeroid mice and non-progeroid, naturally-aged mice led to greater resistance against aging-associated diseases. (wikipedia.org)
  • The word "post-mitotic" is sometimes used to refer to both quiescent and senescent cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • gene
  • In contrast to the pacemaker neurons, in which the circadian oscillations of clock gene expression what time should you take spironolactone self-sustained for many days in DD, oscillations in the peripheral clocks decline after several cycles in DD. (luxbar-starway.ru)
  • Other studies showed that lack of Daxx gene caused a higher apoptotic rate in embryonic stem cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • These gene products are important in determining cell fates during normal development and in maintaining homeostasis, or they can lead to de-regulated growth in disorders like cancer by responding to mutations in β-catenin, APC or Axin, each of which can lead to this de-regulated β-catenin level stabilization in cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • The protein encoded by this gene is a nucleolar antigen expressed in proliferating cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • M-phase inducer phosphatase 3 is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the CDC25C gene. (wikipedia.org)
  • This gene is highly conserved during evolution and it plays a key role in the regulation of cell division. (wikipedia.org)
  • 2000
  • Cells had been transfected with hCOX2 by Lipofectamine 2000. (cancercurehere.com)
  • 2000 ). Because GadA and GadB are intracellular enzymes, and most MSG are out of the cells, the recombinant E. coli cells have to be specially treated by sonication, ethyl acetate, toluene, and thermal activation to increase the permeability (Zhao et al. (springeropen.com)
  • cellular
  • Aging of the hair follicle appears to be primed by a sustained cellular response to the DNA damage that accumulates in renewing stem cells during aging. (neograftofcharleston.com)
  • In patients diagnosed with melanoma, about 40-60% carry mutations in BRAF [ 4 ], which can lead to increased cellular proliferation and increased oncogenic cell activity [ 5 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • While less attention is directed at α-catenin in studies involving cell adhesion, it is nonetheless an important player in cellular organization, function and growth. (wikipedia.org)
  • Mice lacking plakoglobin have cell adhesion defects in many tissues, although β-catenin substitutes for plakoglobin at many cellular junctions. (wikipedia.org)
  • Cellular senescence is the phenomenon by which normal diploid cells cease to divide. (wikipedia.org)
  • As such, cellular senescence represents a change in "cell state" rather than a cell becoming "aged" as the name confusingly suggests. (wikipedia.org)
  • Consistent with this, telomerase-immortalised cells continued to age (according to the epigenetic clock) without having been treated with any senescence inducers or DNA-damaging agents, re-affirming the independence of the process of epigenetic ageing from telomeres, cellular senescence, and the DNA damage response pathway. (wikipedia.org)
  • tissues
  • Pasireotide works by binding to a protein called somatostatin receptor, which is expressed in many tissues throughout the body including thyroid cancer cells. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • As these molecules are vital for life, metabolic reactions either focus on making these molecules during the construction of cells and tissues, or by breaking them down and using them as a source of energy, by their digestion. (wikipedia.org)
  • fluorescence
  • Adjustments in the Ca2+ focus had been indicated as F/F, where F was the fluorescence strength when cells had been at rest, and F was the modification in fluorescence during excitement. (cancercurehere.com)
  • clinical
  • Working closely with a clinical team use of these accurate models are essential to start early phase clinical trials. (pitt.edu)
  • Phase I clinical and pharmacokinetic study of PNU166945, Zweiter band. (luxbar-starway.ru)
  • dormant
  • After a vertebrate cell has been in the G1 phase for about three hours, the cell enters a restriction point in which it is decided whether the cell will move forward with the G1 phase or move into the dormant G0 phase. (wikipedia.org)
  • Organisms can synchronize entry to a dormant phase with their environment through predictive or consequential means. (wikipedia.org)
  • Predictive dormancy occurs when an organism enters a dormant phase before the onset of adverse conditions. (wikipedia.org)
  • Consequential dormancy occurs when organisms enter a dormant phase after adverse conditions have arisen. (wikipedia.org)
  • Specifically, hydrogen cyanamide stimulates cell division and growth in dormant plants, causing budbreak when the plant is on the edge of breaking dormancy. (wikipedia.org)
  • terminal
  • Peak 7-hydroxyperphenazine concentrations were observed between 2 to 4 hours with a terminal phase half-life ranging between 9.9 to 18.8 hours. (nih.gov)
  • Proteolysis of collagen leads to elimination of the damaged cells and then to terminal hair follicle miniaturization. (neograftofcharleston.com)
  • Human
  • Evaluation of cytotoxicity in Human noncancer cells indicated that the compounds 3i and 3m were practically ineffective in quiescent peripheral blood lymphocytes, and may have a selective antiproliferative activity against cancer cells. (deepdyve.com)
  • Gorczyca W, Traganos F, Jesionowska H, Darzynkiewicz Z. Presence of DNA strand breaks and increased sensitivity of DNA in situ to denaturation in abnormal human sperm cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • It is a peptidase enhanced cytotoxic (PEnC) that exerts a targeted delivery of melphalan in cells with high expression of aminopeptidases, such as aminopeptidase N, which has been described as over-expressed in human malignancies. (wikipedia.org)
  • In a human Phase 1 trial, no dose-limiting toxicities (DLTs) were observed at lower doses. (wikipedia.org)
  • However, for missions to the Moon, establishment of a lunar base, and interplanetary travel to Mars, the functional requirements for human performance during each specific phase of these missions have not been sufficiently defined to determine whether currently developed countermeasures are adequate to meet physical performance requirements. (wikipedia.org)
  • activation
  • Cells can also be induced to senesce via DNA damage in response to elevated reactive oxygen species (ROS), activation of oncogenes and cell-cell fusion, independent of telomere length. (wikipedia.org)
  • Activation of each phase is dependent on the proper progression and completion of the previous one. (wikipedia.org)
  • mRNA
  • Overexpression of p120 leads to malignant transformation of 3T3 cells while treatment with antisense p120 mRNA causes the transformed cells to revert to their original non-malignant phenotype. (wikipedia.org)
  • vascular
  • In addition, there are cardiopulmonary and vascular changes, including a significant decrease in red blood cell mass, that affect skeletal muscle function. (wikipedia.org)
  • indicate
  • For instance, when an epithelial layer is complete and the adherens junctions indicate that the cell is surrounded, β-catenin may play a role in telling the cell to stop proliferating, as there is no room for more cells in the area. (wikipedia.org)
  • intracellular
  • First of all, by binding to cadherin receptor intracellular cytoplasmic tail domains, it can act as an integral component of a protein complex in adherens junctions that helps cells maintain epithelial layers. (wikipedia.org)
  • organisms
  • Metabolism (from Greek: μεταβολή metabolē, "change") is the set of life-sustaining chemical transformations within the cells of organisms. (wikipedia.org)
  • For example, the set of carboxylic acids that are best known as the intermediates in the citric acid cycle are present in all known organisms, being found in species as diverse as the unicellular bacterium Escherichia coli and huge multicellular organisms like elephants. (wikipedia.org)
  • Organisms of some taxonomic groups, including some animals, experience chronological decrease in mortality, for all or part of their life cycle. (wikipedia.org)
  • occur
  • In the elephant two distinct LH surges occur 3 wk apart during the nonluteal phase To examine long-term dynamics of hor- 1. (villa-agata.eu)
  • known
  • Within the cell cycle, there is a stringent set of regulations known as the cell cycle control system that controls the timing and coordination of the phases to ensure a correct order of events. (wikipedia.org)
  • After R and before S, the cell is known as being in G1-ps, or the pre S phase interval of the G1 phase. (wikipedia.org)
  • The expansion of the pressurized liquid causes the surrounding area to cool (known as the Joule-Thomson effect) and the phase change of the liquid to gas also causes the surrounding area to cool. (wikipedia.org)
  • inhibition
  • Over-expression of PPARδ also sensitised THP-1 cells to phorbol ester and correspondingly, inhibition of PPARδ by anti-sense RNA completely abolished this response. (biomedcentral.com)
  • β-catenin acts by anchoring the actin cytoskeleton to the junctions, and may possibly aid in contact inhibition signaling within the cell. (wikipedia.org)
  • citation needed] The injury is associated with the inhibition of catalase, which in turn stimulates the pentose phosphate cycle. (wikipedia.org)
  • Components
  • Components and strategies Cell lifestyle MCF-7 cells had been grown up in DMEM moderate filled with 10% fetal leg serum and 1% penicillin/streptomycin serum as defined (9). (cancercurehere.com)
  • humans
  • There are sixteen variants of histone H2B found in humans, thirteen of which are expressed in regular body cells and three of which are only expressed in the testes. (wikipedia.org)
  • antitumor
  • The aim of the present study was to examine the potential antitumor action of IFN-λ1 in human gastric carcinoma cell lines and the possible interaction between IFN-λ1 and human gastric carcinoma cells. (spandidos-publications.com)
  • Yan et al found that the IFN-λs could inhibit lung carcinoma cell growth and produce antitumor effects ( 10 ). (spandidos-publications.com)
  • In the present study, we examined the potential antitumor action of IFN-λ1 in human gastric carcinoma cell lines and the possible interaction between IFN-λ1 and human gastric carcinoma cells. (spandidos-publications.com)
  • Cell-cycle nonspecific antineoplastic agents (CCNS) refer to a class of pharmaceuticals that act as antitumor agents at all or any phases of the cell cycle. (wikipedia.org)
  • eukaryotes
  • Non-proliferative (non-dividing) cells in multicellular eukaryotes generally enter the quiescent G0 state from G1 and may remain quiescent for long periods of time, possibly indefinitely (as is often the case for neurons). (wikipedia.org)