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  • employees
  • A cross-sectional survey included 1456 respondents from France, Sweden, Hungary and the United Kingdom: 681 employees in stable workplaces (reference group) and 775 workers from downsized companies. (biomedcentral.com)
  • jobs
  • Yet, continued export of jobs to developing countries intrinsic to globalization, and technological developments improving productivity, are enduring sources of extensive downsizing in industrialized countries. (biomedcentral.com)
  • loss
  • Reactive downsizing was exemplified by the exposures to compulsory redundancies of medium to large scale resulting in job loss or surviving a layoff while staying employed in downsized organizations. (biomedcentral.com)
  • work
  • Strategic downsizing is often implemented without recourse to compulsory redundancies, mostly by means of reduced work hours, natural wastage, voluntary turnover and early retirement. (biomedcentral.com)