Loading...
  • immune
  • Results: HBV/HIV co-infected patients showed significantly higher levels of immune activation %CD8+/HLA-DR+/CD38+ (median 30%, interquartile range: 17-53) and %CD8+/PD-1 (median 22%, interquartile range: 15-33), p ≤ 0.01 compared to all other study groups. (sun.ac.za)
  • On-going HBV and HIV viraemia, rather than microbial translocation or immune activation, appear to be the drivers of liver fibrosis. (sun.ac.za)
  • Cytheris SA, a clinical stage biopharmaceutical company focused on research and development of new therapies for immune modulation, today announced publication of data showing that IL-7 is able to overcome many of the factors that thwart an effective immune response during chronic overwhelming viremia in diseases such as HIV infection and viral hepatitis. (blogspot.com)
  • The data generated in this study provide insights into the inhibitory pathways that function to impede immune responses in chronic infections such as HIV, HCV and HBV," said Marc Pellegrini, PhD, Laboratory Head, Division of Infection and Immunity, The Walter and Eliza Hall Institute of Medical Research, Melbourne, Australia, and lead author on the study. (blogspot.com)
  • The elucidation of the molecular mechanism whereby IL-7 is able to overcome the immune inhibitory effects of massive viral load and promote extensive expansion of naive and effector T cells has major implications for our understanding of chronic viremia and the potential therapeutic use of IL-7. (blogspot.com)
  • Clone-13 infection has served as a powerful tool in characterizing the dysfunctional immune response associated with chronic viremia, and numerous parallels with these three most common infections have been described in the literature. (blogspot.com)
  • Hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection is responsible for more than a million deaths annually as a result of the immune-mediated chronic liver damage it induces. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • One of the key immune players in the liver is the natural killer (NK) cell, which we have recently found can cause liver damage in HBV infection. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • This work therefore highlights a mechanism contributing to the failure of immune control in chronic HBV infection, paving the way to new therapeutic options. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Several human pathogens have the ability to suppress immune responses, allowing them to establish a persistent and productive infection that eventually results in pathology. (docplayer.net)
  • Although HCV and HBV have been shown to result in impairment of the specific helper cell responses, these viruses do not induce the destruction of specific immune cells. (docplayer.net)
  • antiretroviral
  • The hypothesis is that intensification with entecavir will reduce HBV DNA at 24 weeks more than continued antiretroviral therapy without entecavir. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • Understanding why HBs-seroconversion occurs much more frequently in HIV-coinfected subjects under tenofovir containing antiretroviral therapy than in HBV-monoinfected patients receiving tenofovir therapy, as well as evaluating which factors may play a relevant role here, could be instrumental for further HBV cure research. (natap.org)
  • Discussion: Highly-active antiretroviral therapy, including tenofovir, is effective against both HIV and HBV. (sun.ac.za)
  • prevalence
  • In countries with a low prevalence of endemic chronic HBV infection, the virus is transmitted primarily through sexual contact and injection drug use, whereas perinatal and early childhood exposures are responsible for most HBV transmission in higher prevalence regions. (nih.gov)
  • The aim of this study was to evaluate the presence of OBIs using samples taken from 220 pregnant Beninese women for the purposes of a previous study of the prevalence of HBV markers. (clinmedjournals.org)
  • In geographical terms, it has been reported that the population prevalence of OBI is as high as up to 25% [ 16 - 21 ] in highly endemic areas such as Africa and Asia, where 41-95% of the inhabitants have been exposed to HBV, and lower in areas such as North America or Europe, where only 5-20% of the inhabitants have been exposed [ 22 ]. (clinmedjournals.org)
  • genotypes
  • 11 Genotypes of HBV (A-J) have been identified with different geographic distributions. (nih.gov)
  • Therefore, no conclusive evidence can be drawn regarding association of HBV genotypes (A, B, C, and D) and perinatal transmission [ 16 - 19 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • HBV, an enveloped, double-stranded circular DNA virus, belongs to the Hepadnaviridae family and has 10 known genotypes (A-J) and several subtypes that vary geographically worldwide. (psychiatryadvisor.com)
  • infections
  • It has long been known that the CD8 T-cell response, as assessed by in vitro 51 Cr release assays, is suppressed during persistent LCMV infections ( 3 , 4 , 15 , 40 , 50 ). (asm.org)
  • Therefore, strategies to combat HCC should include screening of populations at risk for HBV and HCV infections as well as treatment. (aacrjournals.org)
  • vaccination
  • Hepatitis B vaccination is the most effective measure to prevent hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection and its consequences, including cirrhosis of the liver, liver cancer, liver failure, and death. (cdc.gov)
  • This report, the second of a two-part statement from the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP), provides updated recommendations to increase hepatitis B vaccination of adults at risk for HBV infection. (cdc.gov)
  • In settings in which a high proportion of adults have risks for HBV infection (e.g., sexually transmitted disease/human immunodeficiency virus testing and treatment facilities, drug-abuse treatment and prevention settings, health-care settings targeting services to IDUs, health-care settings targeting services to MSM, and correctional facilities), ACIP recommends universal hepatitis B vaccination for all unvaccinated adults. (cdc.gov)
  • In other primary care and specialty medical settings in which adults at risk for HBV infection receive care, health-care providers should inform all patients about the health benefits of vaccination, including risks for HBV infection and persons for whom vaccination is recommended, and vaccinate adults who report risks for HBV infection and any adults requesting protection from HBV infection. (cdc.gov)
  • To promote vaccination in all settings, health-care providers should implement standing orders to identify adults recommended for hepatitis B vaccination and administer vaccination as part of routine clinical services, not require acknowledgment of an HBV infection risk factor for adults to receive vaccine, and use available reimbursement mechanisms to remove financial barriers to hepatitis B vaccination. (cdc.gov)
  • In addition, screening is warranted for anyone with risk factors for HBV infection , and at-risk persons who are found to be susceptible to hepatitis B should receive vaccination against HBV. (natap.org)
  • Global HBV vaccination programs as recommended by the World Health Organization may eventually reduce the number of HBV carriers, at present estimated to be 350 million people worldwide ( 21 ). (asm.org)
  • Therefore, further development of the current HBV vaccines to improve the efficacy of vaccination would be desirable. (asm.org)
  • progression
  • Therefore, intensification with entecavir (ETV) has been used by some clinicians with the rationale of reducing HBV drug resistance and preventing progression of liver disease associated with ongoing HBV viremia.6 In a pilot study, we characterized HBV resistance mutations among adults with persistent HBV viremia after 48 weeks of TDF and 3TC/emtricitabine (FTC) treatment and evaluated virologic response among patients with and without subsequent ETV intensification. (natap.org)
  • levels
  • We took advantage of the wide fluctuations in levels of viremia which are typical of chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection to comprehensively analyze the impact of prolonged exposure to different virus quantities on virus-specific T-cell dysfunction and on its reversibility through the blocking of the PD-1/PD-L1 pathway. (asm.org)
  • In chronic HBV infection, virus-specific T cells were detected mainly in patients with lower levels of viremia. (asm.org)
  • Since anti-HBe-positive patients are often characterized by periodic flare-ups in alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and HBV DNA levels ( 6 , 10 ), the longitudinal study of these patients allowed for the detailed evaluation of the impact of fluctuations in HBV DNA levels and disease activity on the profile of the global HBV-specific T-cell repertoire. (asm.org)
  • HBV can infect the follicular fluid and ovary, and studies have suggested that high levels of maternal HBV DNA enhance HBV transmission to embryos. (hindawi.com)
  • the mean viremia levels in the remaining samples were 188.7 IU/mL in group II, although some of the women with OBIs had levels of as high as 1187 IU/mL. (clinmedjournals.org)
  • proteins
  • This phenomenon requires further clarification, particularly in light of the development of newer HBV vaccines containing pre-S proteins and a possible discrepancy between anti-HBs titers and protective efficacy. (asm.org)
  • The surface gene of HBV contains a single open reading frame with three in-frame translation start codons that identify the pre-S1, pre-S2, and S genes, which code for the large (L-HBs), middle (M-HBs), and small (S-HBs) proteins, respectively. (asm.org)
  • resistance
  • Five patients had no HBV drug resistance at study entry despite a preceding median of 32 months of TDF and 70 months of 3TC/FTC treatment. (natap.org)
  • jaundice
  • HBV has an average incubation period of 90 days (range 60-150 days) from exposure to onset of jaundice and 60 days (range 40-90 days) from exposure to onset of abnormal liver enzymes. (nih.gov)
  • viremia, and infectivity diminish rapidly once jaundice becomes apparent. (mhmedical.com)
  • body fluids
  • Hepatitis B is a disease caused by the hepatitis B virus (HBV), which is transmitted through percutaneous (i.e., puncture through the skin) or mucosal (i.e., direct contact with mucous membranes) exposure to infectious blood or body fluids. (cdc.gov)
  • This report updates and consolidates all previous U.S. Public Health Service recommendations for the management of health-care personnel (HCP) who have occupational exposure to blood and other body fluids that might contain hepatitis B virus (HBV), hepatitis C virus (HCV), or human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). (cdc.gov)
  • cytokine
  • In addition, using the tetramer technology coupled to intracellular cytokine staining (ICS), we analyzed the potential role of the PD-1/PD-L1 pathway in the modulation of the HBV-specific T-cell function. (asm.org)
  • Here we address the antiviral potential of NK cells in the HBV-infected liver and demonstrate that they have a specific impairment in their ability to produce the cytokine IFN-γ, which could limit their capacity to control HBV. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • We define a role for the immunosuppressive cytokine environment in HBV in down-regulating NK cell antiviral function, which can be restored by specific blockade of IL-10 and TGF-β. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • occurs
  • The presence of an isolated anti-HBc test result usually signifies infection with HBV in the past with subsequent loss of anti-HBs and occurs in 7% to 19% of HIV-infected patients. (nih.gov)
  • NO viremia or disseminated diseases occurs except in immuncompromised patients. (slideshare.net)
  • In adults, ongoing HBV transmission occurs primarily among unvaccinated persons with behavioral risks for HBV transmission (e.g., heterosexuals with multiple sex partners, injection-drug users [IDUs], and men who have sex with men [MSM]) and among household contacts and sex partners of persons with chronic HBV infection. (cdc.gov)
  • Often, infection occurs as part of a disseminated viremia. (mhmedical.com)
  • Centers
  • The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, United States Preventive Services Taskforce, and the American Association for the Study of Liver Disease (AASLD) recommend screening for chronic HBV infection among HIV-infected patients. (nih.gov)