• ###### obese
• The aim of this study was to estimate the prevalence of underweight and obese individuals, and determine the body fat percentage on male and female students of Bowen University, Nigeria. (ibbj.org)
• For example I'd like to know what the probability is of someone being obese given their BMI and body fat percentage. (physicsforums.com)
• On average, obese people have a greater energy expenditure than their normal counterparts due to the energy required to maintain an increased body mass. (wikipedia.org)
• Ideal body weight, specifically the Devine formula, is used clinically for multiple reasons, most commonly in estimating renal function in drug dosing, and predicting pharmacokinetics in morbidly obese patients. (wikipedia.org)
• Naughton's physician tells him that he is obese based on his body fat percentage, which may have led to this confusion. (wikipedia.org)
• ###### dual energy x-ray a
• Comparing BAI with "gold standard" dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) results, the correlation between DXA-derived percentage of adiposity and the BAI in a target population was R = 0.85, with a concordance of C_b = 0.95. (wikipedia.org)
• Lean body mass has 3 formulas to work it out Instead of mathematical estimation the actual value of LBM may be calculated using various technologies such as Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA). (wikipedia.org)
• Machines like the dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) can accurately measure the percentage and weight of (fat, muscle, bone) in a body. (wikipedia.org)
• ###### populations
• However, BMI does not account for the wide variation in body fat distribution, and may not correspond to the same degree of fatness or associated health risk in different individuals and populations. (wikipedia.org)
• ###### Ponderal
• In comparison, the Ponderal index is based on the natural scaling of mass with the third power of the height. (wikipedia.org)
• ###### Calipers
• Skinfold calipers or "pinch test" The skin at several specific points on the body is pinched and the thickness of the resulting fold is measured. (wikipedia.org)
• ###### sugars
• Diet quality can be improved by reducing the consumption of energy-dense foods, such as those high in fat and sugars, and by increasing the intake of dietary fiber. (wikipedia.org)
• ###### American Council
• According to the American Council on Exercise (ACE) the percentage of essential fat should be around 8 - 12 % for women and 3 - 5 % for men (but these figures do vary according to the source). (halls.md)
• The table below from the American Council on Exercise shows how average percentages differ according to the specified groups and categories: Essential fat is the level at which physical and physiological health would be negatively affected, and below which death is certain. (wikipedia.org)
• ###### widely used body
• The widely used body mass index (BMI) provides a measure that allows the comparison of the adiposity of individuals of different heights and weights. (wikipedia.org)
• A 2010 study that followed 11,000 subjects for up to eight years concluded that WHtR is a much better measure of the risk of heart attack, stroke or death than the more widely used body mass index. (wikipedia.org)
• ###### hips
• It takes weight and waist, hips, forearm, wrist and gender to give you a percentage body fat measurement so have a tape measure to hand. (halls.md)
• percentage of essential fat as it is also found in the breasts, lining of the uterus, hips and thighs. (halls.md)
• Love handles are located above the hips in people that have a high body fat percentage. (straighthealth.com)
• Research shows that people with "apple-shaped" bodies (with more weight around the waist) face more health risks than those with "pear-shaped" bodies who carry more weight around the hips. (wikipedia.org)
• The bust, waist, and hips are called inflection points, and the ratios of their circumferences are used to define basic body shapes. (wikipedia.org)
• They also affect body fat distribution, causing fat to be stored in the buttocks, thighs, and hips in women, but generally not around their waists, which will remain about the same size as they were before puberty. (wikipedia.org)
• At puberty, a girl's sex hormones, mainly estrogen, will promote breast development and a wider pelvis tilted forward for child bearing, and until menopause a woman's estrogen levels will cause her body to store excess fat in the buttocks, hips and thighs, but generally not around her waist, which will remain about the same size as it was before puberty. (wikipedia.org)
• ###### ratio
• However, black women are heavier, their ratio of fat to Body Mass Index is similar. (halls.md)
• Adiposity indexes that include the waist circumference (for example waist-to-height ratio WHtR) may be better than BAI and BMI in evaluating metabolic and cardiovascular risk in both clinical practice and research. (wikipedia.org)
• The modern term "body mass index" (BMI) for the ratio of human body weight to squared height was coined in a paper published in the July 1972 edition of the Journal of Chronic Diseases by Ancel Keys and others. (wikipedia.org)
• Some athletes (e.g. gymnasts, basketball and soccer players) have a high muscle to fat ratio and may have a BMI that is misleadingly high relative to their body fat percentage. (wikipedia.org)
• Hence, it is possible for two women to have vastly different body mass indices but the same waist-hip ratio, or to have the same body mass index but vastly different waist-hip ratios. (wikipedia.org)
• These factors result in women's waist-hip ratio (WHR) being lower than for males, although males tend to have a greater upper-body to waist-hip ratio (WHR) giving them a V shape look because of their greater muscle mass e.g. they generally have much larger, more muscular & broader shoulders, pectoral muscles, teres major muscles & latissimus dorsi muscles. (wikipedia.org)
• ###### 22.9
• This graph from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey in the United States charts the average body fat percentages of Americans from samples from 1999-2004: In males, mean percentage body fat ranged from 22.9% at age 16-19 years to 30.9% at age 60-79 years. (wikipedia.org)
• ###### circumference
• The BAI is calculated as: 100 × hip circumference in m height in m × height − 18 {\displaystyle {\frac {100\times {\text{hip circumference in m}}}{{\text{height in m}}\times {\sqrt {\text{height}}}}}-18} Hip circumference (R = 0.602) and height (R = −0.524) are strongly correlated with percentage of body fat. (wikipedia.org)
• WHR has been shown to be a better predictor of cardiovascular disease than waist circumference and body-mass index. (wikipedia.org)
• ###### accumulation
• But the accumulation of too much storage fat can impair movement, flexibility, and alter the appearance of the body. (wikipedia.org)
• ###### kilograms
• Irrespective of the location from which they are obtained, the fat cells in humans are composed almost entirely of pure triglycerides with an average density of about 0.9 kilograms per litre. (wikipedia.org)
• The following formula may be used: For men: LBM = (0.32810 × W) + (0.33929 × H) − 29.5336 For women: LBM = (0.29569 × W) + (0.41813 × H) − 43.2933 where W is body weight in kilograms and H is body height in centimeters. (wikipedia.org)
• The BMI is defined as the body mass divided by the square of the body height, and is universally expressed in units of kg/m2, resulting from mass in kilograms and height in metres. (wikipedia.org)
• Body weight is measured in kilograms, a measure of mass, throughout the world, although in some countries such as the United States it is measured in pounds, or as in the United Kingdom, stones and pounds. (wikipedia.org)
• ###### Excessive
• Excessive body fat is associated with increased metabolic risk, and its' measurement is important in implementing curative and preventive health measures. (biomedcentral.com)
• Excessive body weight is associated with various diseases and conditions, particularly cardiovascular diseases, diabetes mellitus type 2, obstructive sleep apnea, certain types of cancer, osteoarthritis and asthma. (wikipedia.org)
• A lack of knowledge about diabetes and the health consequences also contribute to the high percentage of excessive weight. (wikipedia.org)
• ###### women's
• Women's bodies occur in a range of shapes. (wikipedia.org)
• According to Dr. Devendra Singh, "Body shape is determined by the nature of body fat distribution that, in turn, is significantly correlated with women's sex hormone profile, risk for disease, and reproductive capability. (wikipedia.org)
• ###### bone
• This type of fat is found in most parts of the body such as nerve sheaths, walls of organs, bone marrow and muscles and is essential to normal functioning. (halls.md)
• citation needed] Estrogens can also affect the female body shape in a number of other ways, including increasing fat stores, accelerating metabolism, reducing muscle mass, and increasing bone formation. (wikipedia.org)
• ###### prediction
• Prediction of lean body mass from height and weight" (PDF). (wikipedia.org)
• Newer systems, such as the PAWPER tape, make use of a simple two-step process to estimate weight: the length-based weight estimation is modified according to the child's body habitus to increase the accuracy of the final weight prediction. (wikipedia.org)
• ###### dense
• As fat is less dense than muscle, careful application of this technique can provide a reasonably close estimate of fat content in the body. (wikipedia.org)
• ###### gender and race
• One study that examined 665 people on the relation between BMI and percent body fat found that age , gender and race play a role in what is a healthy body fat percent. (halls.md)
• Medical study on Age, Gender and Race and body fat percentage. (halls.md)
• ###### individuals
• for example, individuals with greater muscle mass or larger bones will have higher BMIs. (wikipedia.org)
• This method can be reasonably accurate for many people, but it assumes particular fat distribution patterns over the body-which may not apply to all individuals, and does not account for fat deposits not directly under the skin. (wikipedia.org)
• Some studies have suggested that the main factor which explains the metabolic abnormalities in MONW individuals is fat distribution. (wikipedia.org)
• However, it ignores variations between individuals in amounts of lean body mass, particularly muscle mass. (wikipedia.org)
• Individuals involved in heavy physical labor or sports may have high BMI values despite having little fat. (wikipedia.org)
• Evidence for the relationship between cortisol and central fat distribution has primarily been studied in individuals with Cushing's syndrome. (wikipedia.org)
• ###### reproductive
• Essential body fat is necessary to maintain life and reproductive functions. (wikipedia.org)
• A healthy body requires a minimum amount of fat for proper functioning of the hormonal, reproductive, and immune systems, as thermal insulation, as shock absorption for sensitive areas, and as energy for future use. (wikipedia.org)
• ###### density
• With a well engineered weighing system, body density can be determined with great accuracy by completely submerging a person in water and calculating the volume of the displaced water from the weight of the displaced water. (wikipedia.org)
• If there were no errors whatsoever in measuring body density, the uncertainty in fat estimation would be about ± 3.8% of the body weight, primarily because of normal variability in body constituents. (wikipedia.org)
• This weight is then compared with "dry weight" as recorded outside the water to determine overall body density. (wikipedia.org)
• ###### sensitivity
• This heightened sensitivity to cortisol stimulates fat cells to further increase in size. (wikipedia.org)
• ###### health
• Because the distribution of fat is an important indicator of health and the slim lady may have a higher percentage of fat than than the larger lady, who may be very muscular and big-boned. (halls.md)
• It is the 'storage fat' that is used in metabolism and energy expenditure, and as we all know, too much of this can have some serious health implications . (halls.md)
• The body-fat percentage may be a useful tool for predicting an individual's health. (halls.md)
• Various theoretical approaches exist on the relationships between body fat percentage, health, athletic capacity, etc. (wikipedia.org)
• Excess or reduced body weight is regarded as an indicator of determining a person's health, with body volume measurement providing an extra dimension by calculating the distribution of body weight. (wikipedia.org)
• The National Institute of Diabetes, Digestive and Kidney Diseases (NIDDK) states that women with waist-hip ratios of more than 0.8, and men with more than 1.0, are at increased health risk because of their fat distribution. (wikipedia.org)
• There are, and have been, wide differences in what should be considered an ideal or preferred body shape, both for attractiveness and for health reasons. (wikipedia.org)
• ###### distribution
• Female body shape or female figure is the cumulative product of a woman's skeletal structure and the quantity and distribution of muscle and fat on the body. (wikipedia.org)
• Body fat distribution may change from time to time, depending on food habits, activity levels and hormone levels. (wikipedia.org)
• A woman's sex hormone levels will affect the fat distribution on her body. (wikipedia.org)
• ###### reduces
• Bisphenol A (BPA), is one known environmental obesogen that reduces overall number of fat cells, but makes remaining fat cells larger. (wikipedia.org)
• testosterone also reduces fat by aiding fast metabolism. (wikipedia.org)
• ###### muscle mass
• This does not necessarily mean that once the percentage of body fat has been deducted from the equation, that everything else that is left is muscle mass . (halls.md)
• This suggests that a high proportion of adiposity is more predictive of lower extremity injuries, possibly due to a lower proportion of lean muscle mass. (bmj.com)
• This is the easiest and most common method, but by far the least accurate, as it only measures one quantity (weight) and often does not take into account many factors such as height, body type, and relative amount of muscle mass. (wikipedia.org)
• As fat and muscle conduct electricity differently, this method can provide a direct measurement of the body fat percentage, in relation to muscle mass. (wikipedia.org)
• On the other hand, estrogens reduce muscle mass. (wikipedia.org)
• Muscle mass changes over time as a result of changes in testosterone and estrogen levels and exercise, besides other factors. (wikipedia.org)
• ###### Intake
• For his daily dietary intake, he aims to keep his calories to around 2,000 and his carbohydrates to around 100 grams per day, but he does not restrict fat at all. (wikipedia.org)
• In addition, the types of food and fat intake have changed. (wikipedia.org)
• ###### hormonal
• The percentage of essential body fat for women is greater than that for men, due to the demands of childbearing and other hormonal functions. (wikipedia.org)