Loading...
  • enzyme
  • The detection method includes an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), an immunoradiometric assay (IRMA), and other forms of immunoassay procedures such as enzyme immuno blotting assay on nitrocellulose paper and an agglutination assay using the peptide composition as the antigen. (freepatentsonline.com)
  • After the peptide chain is synthesized, it can then be modified by halogenation, hydroxylation, acylation or glycosylation, which is typically carried out by an enzyme coded for in the same operon or gene cluster that was associated with the carrier protein. (wikibooks.org)
  • Attack of ammonia via an amidotransferase enzyme releases the carrier protein. (wikipedia.org)
  • The activated amino acid can then be transferred to the enzyme bound 4'-phosphopantetheine of the carrier protein with the expulsion of AMP from the system. (wikipedia.org)
  • Affinity chromatography is a method of separating biochemical mixtures based on a highly specific interaction between antigen and antibody, enzyme and substrate, receptor and ligand, or protein and nucleic acid. (wikipedia.org)
  • Purification
  • Our custom antibody services include many competitively priced packages and specialized purification options for antibody production, all supported by powerful online tools for peptide design and project tracking. (thermofisher.com)
  • If the protein becomes denatured or if the copper ions are lost in the purification process, the opalescent blue color disappears and the solution becomes a dull grayish color. (wikipedia.org)
  • The stationary phase is first loaded into a column with mobile phase containing a variety of biomolecules from DNA to proteins (depending on the purification experiment). (wikipedia.org)
  • Possibly the most common use of affinity chromatography is for the purification of recombinant proteins. (wikipedia.org)
  • Antibodies
  • The present invention relates to a method for the detection HTLV-I and/or HTLV-II reactive antibodies and diagnosis of ATL (adult T cell leukemia/lymphoma) condition by the use of chemically synthesized peptide compositions. (freepatentsonline.com)
  • The peptide compositions are highly immunoreactive with antibodies to HTLV in sera. (freepatentsonline.com)
  • Many roles for DSIP have been suggested following research carried out using peptide analogues with a greater molecular stability and through measuring DSIP-like immunological (DSIP-LI) response by injecting DSIP antiserum and antibodies. (wikipedia.org)
  • Antigen
  • Classically, the mechanism responsible for antigen processing was thought to be similar to what was known for hapten-carrier conjugates: protease digestion of the carrier protein in the endosome and presentation of a resulting peptide to the T cell receptor on classical peptide-recognizing CD4 + T cells. (pnas.org)
  • Processing of both the protein and the polysaccharide creates glycopeptides in the endosome of antigen-presenting cells. (pnas.org)
  • Most commonly, the poor antigen is a polysaccharide that is attached to strong protein antigen. (wikipedia.org)
  • Normally, polysaccharides by themselves cannot be loaded onto the MHC complex of antigen presenting cells (APC) because MHC can only bind peptides. (wikipedia.org)
  • In the case of a conjugate vaccine, the carrier peptide linked to the polysaccharide target antigen is able to be presented on the MHC molecule and the T cell can be activated. (wikipedia.org)
  • membrane
  • Secretory carrier-associated membrane protein 2 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the SCAMP2 gene. (wikipedia.org)
  • The first step in this proposed model is an interaction with the unfolded fusion protein (TAT) and the membrane through electrostatic interactions, which disrupt the membrane enough to allow the fusion protein to cross the membrane. (wikipedia.org)
  • Indeed, mechanisms that involve large fluctuations of the membrane structure, such as transient pores and the insertion of charged amino acid side-chains, may be common and perhaps central to the functions of many membrane protein functions. (wikipedia.org)
  • covalently
  • For presentation, the peptide portion of the glycopeptide is bound to MHCII, allowing the covalently linked glycan to activate carbohydrate-specific helper CD4 + T cells (Tcarbs). (pnas.org)
  • you can couple the peptide covalently to amine activated plates - Nunc and Pierce sell them. (protocol-online.org)
  • mammalian
  • In addition, because KLH is derived from the limpet, a gastropod, it is phylogenetically distant from mammalian proteins, thus reducing false positives in immunologically-based research techniques in mammalian model organisms. (wikipedia.org)
  • The vasopressin-like peptides, which differ in positions 3 and/or 8, include AVT and the mammalian hormones arginine vasopressin (Cys-Tyr-Phe-Gln-Asn-Cys-Pro-Arg-Gly-NH2, with isoleucine-3 of AVT changed to phenylalanine) and lysine vasopressin (isoleucine-3 changed to phenylalanine and arginine-8 changed to lysine). (wikipedia.org)
  • So far, most sperm chemoattractants that have been identified in non-mammalian species are peptides or low-molecular-weight proteins (1-20 kDa), which are heat stable and sensitive to proteases. (wikipedia.org)
  • molecules
  • In response to S. aureus , host defense peptides (HDPs) are produced as nature's own sentinel effector molecules. (springer.com)
  • Haptens are substances with a low molecular weight such as peptides, small proteins and drug molecules that are generally not immunogenic and require the aid of a carrier protein to stimulate a response from the immune system in the form of antibody production. (wikipedia.org)
  • Biological macromolecules, such as enzymes and other proteins, interact with other molecules with high specificity through several different types of bonds and interaction. (wikipedia.org)
  • The molecules no longer needed are first washed away with a buffer while the desired proteins are let go in the presence of the eluting solvent (of higher salt concentration). (wikipedia.org)
  • This process creates a competitive interaction between the desired protein and the immobilized stationary molecules, which eventually lets the now highly purified proteins be released. (wikipedia.org)
  • Cell-penetrating peptides (CPPs) are short peptides that facilitate cellular intake/uptake of various molecular equipment (from nanosize particles to small chemical molecules and large fragments of DNA). (wikipedia.org)
  • bind
  • I have done a lot ELISAs already, but at least in our group it was always thought that the antibody would not be able to bind the peptide, which is directly bound to the plate, simply because there is not enough space. (protocol-online.org)
  • analogues
  • Since then, the number of known CPPs has expanded considerably and small molecule synthetic analogues with more effective protein transduction properties have been generated. (wikipedia.org)
  • Cysteine
  • The specificity of this reaction is ideal for situations where the cysteine is located away from the desired epitope (e.g. in peptides where a terminal cysteine can be added to either end of the peptide). (wikipedia.org)
  • molecular
  • Disclaimer note: The observed molecular weight of the protein may vary from the listed predicted molecular weight due to post translational modifications, post translation cleavages, relative charges, and other experimental factors. (novusbio.com)
  • Both encode large glycosylated proteins consisting of around 3400 amino acids and a molecular weight of around 390,000 Daltons, excluding the glycosylation. (wikipedia.org)
  • If the molecular weight, hydrophobicity, charge, etc. of a protein is unknown, affinity chromatography can still apply to this situation. (wikipedia.org)
  • DSIP is an amphiphilic peptide of molecular weight 850 daltons with the amino acid motif: N-Trp-Ala-Gly-Gly-Asp-Ala-Ser-Gly-Glu-C It has been found in both free and bound forms in the hypothalamus, limbic system and pituitary as well as various peripheral organs, tissues and body fluids. (wikipedia.org)
  • Analogous to the nonribosomal code is prediction of peptide composition by DNA/RNA codon reading, which is well supported by the central dogma of molecular biology and accomplished using the genetic code simply by following the DNA codon table or RNA codon table. (wikipedia.org)
  • complexes
  • It has been suggested that in the body it complexes with carrier proteins to prevent degradation, or exists as a component of a large precursor molecule, but as yet no structure or gene has been found for this precursor. (wikipedia.org)
  • serine
  • The release of the product from the carrier protein is achieved through acylation of the active site serine of TE in which the decapeptide is transferred from the thiol ether to the serine residue. (wikipedia.org)
  • modulates
  • Alalwani SM, Sierigk J, Herr C, Pinkenburg O, Gallo R, Vogelmeier C, Bals R (2010) The antimicrobial peptide LL-37 modulates the inflammatory and host defense response of human neutrophils. (springer.com)
  • mechanism
  • This mechanism involves strong interactions between cell-penetrating peptides and the phosphate groups on both sides of the lipid bilayer, the insertion of positively charged arginine side-chains that nucleate the formation of a transient pore, followed by the translocation of cell-penetrating peptides by diffusing on the pore surface. (wikipedia.org)
  • This mechanism explains how key ingredients, such as the cooperation among the peptides, the large positive charge, and specifically the guanidinium groups, contribute to the uptake. (wikipedia.org)
  • degradation
  • Proteasome-mediated degradation of this protein has been shown to be involved in the inactivation of the erythropoietin receptor. (novusbio.com)
  • genes
  • There are two keyhole limpet hemocyanin genes, termed KLH1 and KLH2 which share around 60% identity at the protein level. (wikipedia.org)
  • composition
  • The present invention further relates to a method for the simultaneous detection and diagnosis of ATL, HTLV-I and/or HTLV-II infection and Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) by the use of chemically synthesized HTLV peptide compositions in conjunction with a chemically synthesized HIV (1 and 2) peptide composition. (freepatentsonline.com)
  • polysaccharide
  • Covalent linkage of the bacterial capsular polysaccharide to a carrier protein provides CD4 + T cells with epitopes that facilitate a memory response to the polysaccharide. (pnas.org)
  • Digestion of this acid-sensitive polysaccharide, a linear homopolymer of α(2 → 9)-linked sialic acid, to the size of the monomeric unit resulted in a dominant CD4 + T cell response to peptides in the context of MHCII. (pnas.org)
  • By conjugating the polysaccharide to a protein carrier, a T cell response can be induced. (wikipedia.org)
  • belongs
  • The protein thus belongs to the cytokine-induced STAT inhibitor (CIS), also known as suppressor of cytokine signaling (SOCS) or STAT-induced STAT inhibitor (SSI), protein family. (novusbio.com)
  • gene
  • PIAS 1, for protein inhibitor of activated Stat1 (also designated Gu/RNA helicase II binding protein), binds specifically to Stat1, blocking Stat1 DNA-binding activity and inhibiting Stat1-mediated gene activation. (novusbio.com)
  • The protein encoded by this gene contains a SH2 domain and a SOCS box domain. (novusbio.com)
  • Gene duplication and point mutation have produced two distinct lineages, one involved in reproduction (oxytocin-like peptides) and the other in osmoregulation (vasopressin-like peptides). (wikipedia.org)
  • However, the gene is unknown[citation needed], raising serious questions regarding the actual existence of this peptide in nature. (wikipedia.org)
  • kinase
  • Purpose Review aberrations of insulin signaling to atypical proteins kinase C (aPKC) in muscles and liver that generate cardiovascular risk elements, including, weight problems, hypertriglyceridemia, hypercholesterolemia, insulin level of resistance and blood sugar intolerance in type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), and obesity-associated metabolic symptoms (MetSyn). (biomasswars.com)
  • Cyclin-dependent kinase 1 also known as CDK1 or cell division cycle protein 2 homolog is a highly conserved protein that functions as a serine/threonine kinase, and is a key player in cell cycle regulation. (wikipedia.org)
  • Cdk1 is comprised mostly by the bare protein kinase motif, which other protein kinases share. (wikipedia.org)
  • exons
  • Chimeric RNA, sometimes referred to as a fusion transcript, is composed of exons from two or more different genes and have the potential to encode novel proteins. (wikipedia.org)
  • The exons of these 25,000 genes can be spliced in many different ways to create countless combinations of RNA transcripts and ultimately countless proteins. (wikipedia.org)
  • Disturbance
  • Expression of mislocalized mutant syntaxin 3 in Madin-Darby canine kidney cells leads to basolateral mistargeting of apical membrane proteins, disturbance of tight junction formation, and loss of ability to form an organized polarized epithelium. (rupress.org)
  • transcriptional
  • While the precise control mechanism has not yet been established, FOX proteins belong to the forkhead/winged-helix family of transcriptional regulators and are presumed to exert control via similar DNA binding interactions during transcription. (wikipedia.org)
  • encode
  • At least three alternatively spliced variants encoding distinct proteins have been reported, two of which encode structurally related isoforms known to function as inhibitors of CDK4. (wikipedia.org)
  • pathogen
  • Pneumolysin (PLY), an associate from the category of Gram-positive bacterial, cholesterol-dependent, -barrel pore-forming cytolysins, may be the main proteins virulence aspect from the dangerous respiratory pathogen, (pneumococcus). (biomasswars.com)
  • structural
  • Other proteins have structural or mechanical functions, such as those that form the cytoskeleton, a system of scaffolding that maintains the cell shape. (wikipedia.org)
  • kilodaltons
  • Alkaline phosphatase (ALP, ALKP, ALPase, Alk Phos) (EC 3.1.3.1) or basic phosphatase is a homodimeric protein enzyme of 86 kilodaltons. (wikipedia.org)
  • mutation
  • This domain recruits clathrin and other proteins responsible for the endocytosis of LDL, therefore this mutation inhibits LDL internalization. (wikipedia.org)
  • citation needed] In mice, a Foxp3 mutation (a frameshift mutation that result in protein lacking the forkhead domain) is responsible for 'Scurfy', an X-linked recessive mouse mutant that results in lethality in hemizygous males 16 to 25 days after birth. (wikipedia.org)
  • mutations
  • Carriers of germline mutations in CDKN2A have besides their high risks of melanoma also increased risks of pancreatic, lung, laryngeal and oropharyngeal cancers and tobacco smoking exacerbates carriers' susceptibility for such non-melanoma cancers. (wikipedia.org)
  • Tumor
  • The ARF product functions as a stabilizer of the tumor suppressor protein p53, as it can interact with and sequester MDM2, a protein responsible for the degradation of p53. (wikipedia.org)
  • function
  • The structure, function and molecular biology of Ca2+ dependent regulatory proteins (particularly calmodulin) and the target proteins which they regulate is under study. (uky.edu)
  • A third domain of the protein is rich in O-linked oligosaccharides but appears to show little function. (wikipedia.org)
  • DRS-1, a human protein of unknown function that contains a N-terminal ACB domain and a C-terminal enoyl-CoA isomerase/hydratase domain. (wikipedia.org)
  • A member of the FOX protein family, FOXP3 appears to function as a master regulator of the regulatory pathway in the development and function of regulatory T cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • cell
  • Proteins are also important in cell signaling, immune responses, cell adhesion, active transport across membranes, and the cell cycle. (wikipedia.org)
  • Alternatively, the DNA may be encapsulated in protein to facilitate cell entry. (wikipedia.org)
  • Alkaline phosphatase in E. coli is located in the periplasmic space and can thus be released using techniques that weaken the cell wall and release the protein. (wikipedia.org)
  • usually
  • Targeting information is usually present in the cargo proteins themselves. (rupress.org)
  • It works by blocking the making of protein by the bacteria which usually results in bacterial death. (wikipedia.org)
  • While DNA serves as template for production of ribonucleic acid (RNA), RNA is usually responsible for making protein. (wikipedia.org)
  • Carriers may heal spontaneously, but acquired immunity may be short, and they may go on to reinfect, usually within a few weeks, if they are living in a group with healthy, but persistent, excretory carriers. (wikipedia.org)
  • expression
  • Because the plasmid is the "vehicle" from which the immunogen is expressed, optimising vector design for maximal protein expression is essential. (wikipedia.org)
  • One way of enhancing protein expression is by optimising the codon usage of pathogenic mRNAs for eukaryotic cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • several
  • Regulation of p16 is complex and involves the interaction of several transcription factors, as well as several proteins involved in epigenetic modification through methylation and repression of the promoter region. (wikipedia.org)
  • Coronaviruses are covered with several types of "S proteins" (or E2) forming a crown of protein spikes on the surface of the virus. (wikipedia.org)
  • Immunogen
  • Polycistronic vectors (ones located at multiple genome sites) are sometimes constructed to express more than one immunogen, or to express an immunogen and an immunostimulatory protein. (wikipedia.org)
  • immune responses
  • Because these proteins are recognised as foreign, when they are processed by the host cells and displayed on their surface, the immune system is alerted, which then triggers immune responses. (wikipedia.org)
  • type
  • These AT domains are the only domains present on MmpC, while the other three type I PKS proteins contain no AT domains. (wikipedia.org)
  • apparatus
  • A second major area of study concerns depolarization depemndent reversible phodsphorylation of various protein factors of the vesicular neurosecretory apparatus and the possible dysfunction in this system in epilepsy. (uky.edu)
  • specific
  • Fusion proteins are very tissue-specific and they are frequently associated with cancers such as colorectal, prostate, and mesotheliomas. (wikipedia.org)