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  • uptake
  • The results indicate that Hepc released by HepG2 inhibited apical iron uptake by Caco-2 cells, probably by inhibiting the expression of the apical transporter DMT1. (nih.gov)
  • In cultured cells, expression of HFE reduces the uptake of ferritin from transferrin, suggesting that HFE has a role in regulating transferrin-mediated iron uptake. (barnardhealth.us)
  • ferroportin
  • The authors reported a marked decrease in the levels of ferroportin, the only known mechanism responsible for the export of intracellular non-heme-associated iron to date, in human breast cancer cell lines and breast cancer tissue. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Subsequently, it is either stored in ferritin, which dynamically regulates iron sequestration, storage, and release or it is transported from enterocytes into the blood stream via the basolateral transporter ferroportin ( Fleming and Ponka 2012 ). (genetics.org)
  • Ferroportin is an iron export pump and the only known mechanism for the export of nonheme iron from vertebrate cells. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Likewise, Tmprss6 −/− mice have reduced ferroportin expression in the basolateral membrane of enterocytes and accumulate iron in these cells. (bloodjournal.org)
  • Ferritin
  • GIVEN ALL OF THE ABOVE ^^^^, it is WELL worth wondering WHY doctors ONLY measure Ferritin (but we have NO idea whether it's the Heavy or the Light form…), and that from 1860-1972, ALL Clinicians & Scientists ONLY measured Hemoglobin (Hgb) to assess TRUE FUNTIONAL Iron status. (gotmag.org)
  • I'm quite confident that you do NOT know your Hepcidin status, and the fact that you ONLY know your Ferritin status, and NOT EVEN your Hemoglobin status, is WHY you are soooo confused and yet, soooo Iron TOXIC, and are likely suffering from one or more of the 30+ Autoimmune conditions that are CAUSED by excess, stored IronIron-ic, eh? (gotmag.org)
  • Iron, total iron-binding capacity (TIBC), transferrin saturation and ferritin, and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (CRP) concentrations in serum samples were measured using commercial kits (Roche Diagnostics, GmbH, Mannheim, Germany) and a Roche/Hitachi 902 analyzer. (hindawi.com)
  • functional
  • However, copper and iron functional values are likely altered also in these two organs, as indicated by the modulation of metal-binding protein expression levels. (frontiersin.org)
  • Part I: The Facts of Iron Anemia and what it REALLY stands for: "Low FUNCTIONAL Iron! (gotmag.org)
  • hepatic iron
  • Eventually, this leads to hepatic iron loading associated with APAP cytotoxicity. (oup.com)
  • An increased level of hepatic iron has been observed among alcoholics. (mdpi.com)
  • Increased ROS, IL-1β, acetaldehyde, and increased hepatic iron, all activate nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB) transcription factor. (mdpi.com)
  • roles
  • Vitamin C (ascorbate) plays numerous important roles in cellular metabolism, many of which have only come to light in recent years. (jove.com)
  • The trace element iron is crucial for living organisms, since it plays essential roles in numerous cellular functions. (genetics.org)
  • enterocytes
  • Dietary iron is absorbed primarily by duodenal enterocytes via the divalent metal-ion transporter 1 (DMT1) after it is reduced at the apical membrane. (genetics.org)
  • oxidative
  • Iron as "Bad Guy": "Free labile forms of iron and heme, however, are potentially toxic and threaten tissue integrity due to their pro-oxidative properties which are largely based on the capacity of iron to non-enzymatically boost reactive oxygen species (ROS) production via Fenton chemistry [89, (gotmag.org)
  • These factors are regulated through HIF-1α during oxidative stress and suggest that HIF-1α is a key modulator in reduced hepcidin transcription after APAP-induced hepatotoxicity. (oup.com)
  • Ethanol metabolism mediated by cytochrome-P450 2E1 causes oxidative stress due to increased production of reactive oxygen species (ROS). (mdpi.com)
  • physiological
  • Essential elements as copper and iron modulate a wide range of physiological functions. (frontiersin.org)
  • These sRNAs deploy novel mechanisms to regulate mRNA targets leading to various physiological outcomes during stress conditions including, but not limited to, iron starvation, carbon flux and metabolism, virulence, and quorum sensing. (illinois.edu)
  • bioavailable iron
  • Notwithstanding the importance of optimizing bioavailable iron for erythropoiesis for children with advanced CKD, achieving this remains challenging for pediatric nephrologists due to the historical lack of practical and robust measures of iron status. (springer.com)
  • affinity
  • 1 An alternative technique is affinity enrichment of peptides coupled with quantitative mass spectrometry, commonly referred to as SISCAPA (Stable Isotope Standards and Capture by Anti-Peptide Antibodies). (jove.com)
  • To characterize the putative interaction, we mapped the binding of the core domain of p53 (p53c) to an array of immobilized HIF-1α-derived peptides and found two peptide-sequence motifs that bound to p53c with micromolar affinity in solution. (pnas.org)
  • inflammatory
  • Our results showed that it is important to establish RIs for certain laboratory parameters in a physically active population, especially for tests related to the inflammatory response and iron metabolism. (hindawi.com)
  • transcription
  • We showed that hepcidin transcription was inhibited via several hepcidin-regulating factors, including the bone morphogenetic protein/small mother against decapentaplegic (BMP/SMAD) pathway, CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein α (C/EBPα), and possibly also via erythropoietin (EPO). (oup.com)
  • BMP2, BMP4, BMP6 and BMP9 have all been reported to regulate hepcidin transcription [ 19 - 22 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • Activated BMPR-I in turn phosphorylates the receptor-regulated Smad (R-Smad) family of transcription factors: Smad1, Smad5, and Smad8 [ 29 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • signals
  • Lately, Hepc has been considered the "stores regulator," a putative factor that signals the iron content of the body to intestinal cells. (nih.gov)
  • HIF-1α-derived peptides with strong binding signals are indicated by filled boxes, and weakly binding peptides are indicated by dotted boxes. (pnas.org)
  • sequence
  • One or more selected peptides whose sequence is unique to the target protein in that species (i.e. "proteotypic" peptides) are then enriched from the sample using anti-peptide antibodies and measured as quantitative stoichiometric surrogates for protein concentration in the sample. (jove.com)
  • Binding of p53c to an immobilized peptide array screening the HIF-1α sequence. (pnas.org)
  • The peptides have a sequence overlap with their neighbors and are numbered Hp1-75. (pnas.org)
  • metabolic
  • In fact, metabolic studies of iron in human volunteers done by Finch and colleagues in the late 1950s remain some of the most elegant human biodistribution studies conducted ( 1) . (aacrjournals.org)
  • Alterations
  • Our data suggest that these alterations can be due to impairments in copper-dependent cerulopalsmin activity which is known to affect iron mobilization. (frontiersin.org)