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  • genes
  • The recently developed tools for genomic analyses of this organism have allowed us to identify most of the genes required for chlorophyll and carotenoid biosynthesis and to examine their phylogenetic relationships with homologous genes from vascular plants, other algae, and cyanobacteria. (plantphysiol.org)
  • Of the remaining two mutants, one contained a transposon insertion in a locus involved in lipopolysaccharide core biosynthesis ( waaF ), while the other contained an insertion in an open reading frame homologous to UDP-glucose dehydrogenase genes. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • The Lm agr operon is homologous to the Staphylococcus aureus system, which includes an agrD -encoded autoinducing peptide that stimulates expression of the agr genes via the AgrCA two-component system and is required for regulation of target genes. (frontiersin.org)
  • In bacteria, SAM-e is bound by the SAM riboswitch, which regulates genes involved in methionine or cysteine biosynthesis. (wikipedia.org)
  • The NRPS genes for a certain peptide are usually organized in one operon in bacteria and in gene clusters in eukaryotes. (wikipedia.org)
  • Pathway
  • Conclusions- Collagen biosynthesis was significantly inhibited at the transcriptional level and in the posttranscriptional enzymatic modification in CA walls through upregulated expression of IL-1β and the NF-κB pathway. (ahajournals.org)
  • pantothenic acid
  • Change in the incubation medium, hypoxia, nutrient starvation and low pH were the main factors that trigger titan cell formation, while quorum sensing factors like the initial inoculum concentration, pantothenic acid, and the quorum sensing peptide Qsp1p also impacted titan cell formation. (pasteur.fr)
  • Molecules
  • These techniques allowed for the discovery and detailed analysis of many molecules and metabolic pathways of the cell, such as glycolysis and the Krebs cycle (citric acid cycle), and led to an understanding of biochemistry on a molecular level. (wikipedia.org)
  • tryptophan
  • Vitamin B3 (nicotinic acid or niacin), synthesized from tryptophan is a component of the coenzymes NAD+ and NADP+ which in turn are required for electron transport in the Krebs cycle, oxidative phosphorylation, as well as many other redox reactions. (wikipedia.org)
  • gene
  • IGF1 is a key peptide in many tumors but its gene was not found as overexpressed in glioblastoma. (org.ua)
  • Phylogenetic algorithms that permit the comparison of homologies led to phylogenetic trees that have a similar topology, independent of the gene analyzed. (wikipedia.org)
  • catalyzes
  • Probably catalyzes the first step in biosynthesis of glycosaminoglycan. (abcam.com)
  • Condensation: The C-domain catalyzes the amide bond formation between the thioester group of the growing peptide chain from the previous module with the amino group of the current module. (wikipedia.org)
  • tRNAs
  • Alternatively they might supply aminoacylated tRNAs for other biosynthetic pathways like that for tetrapyrrole or directly function as peptide ligases as in the case of mycothiol and those identified here. (biomedcentral.com)
  • biological
  • CDPs can be configured as both cis and trans isoforms, but cis configurations are predominant [ 3 ].Various amino acid modifications confer diversified chemical and biological functions. (mdpi.com)
  • In biological evaluation of dentigerumycin E ( 1 ) and its chemical derivatives [2- N ,16- N -deoxydenteigerumycin E ( 2 ) and dentigerumycin methyl ester ( 3 )], only dentigerumycin E exhibited antiproliferative and antimetastatic activities against human cancer cells, indicating that N -OH and carboxylic acid functional groups are essential for the biological activity. (frontiersin.org)
  • Nonribosomal peptides are a very diverse family of natural products with an extremely broad range of biological activities and pharmacological properties. (wikipedia.org)
  • condensation
  • The mainframe structure of CDPs is a CDP scaffold generated by the condensation of two α-amino acids. (mdpi.com)
  • We further identify an analogous system wherein the MtRS has been replaced by more typical peptide ligases with the ATP-grasp or modular condensation-domains. (biomedcentral.com)
  • roles
  • Building upon current knowledge, we hypothesized that epoxyeicosatrienoic acids (EETs) and related CYP450 epoxygenases may have differential roles in breast cancer signaling, and better understanding of which may uncover potential directions for molecular stratification and personalized therapy for TNBC patients. (springer.com)
  • molecular
  • Detects a band of approximately 150 kDa (predicted molecular weight: 84 kDa).Can be blocked with Human MGAT5 peptide (ab68594) . (abcam.com)
  • In the present study, we examined collagen biosynthesis in CA walls and the molecular mechanisms underlying it in CA progression. (ahajournals.org)
  • bacteria
  • The encoded tag peptide (ANDENYALAA in E. coli) varies among bacteria, perhaps depending on the set of proteases and adaptors available. (wikipedia.org)
  • Nonribosomal peptides are also found in higher organisms, such as nudibranchs, but are thought to be made by bacteria inside these organisms. (wikipedia.org)
  • found
  • The new human cell line stably producing CHI3L1 was constructed and found that these cells had an accelerated growth rate and could undergo anchorage-independent growth in soft agar that is one of the most consistent indicators of oncogenic transformation (Fig. 1). (org.ua)
  • Various
  • 9,10 Some inflammatory cytokines, including tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and interleukin-1β (IL-1β), downregulate procollagen biosynthesis at the transcriptional level in various types of cells. (ahajournals.org)
  • This is just a sampling of the various manipulations and variations that nonribosomal peptides can perform. (wikipedia.org)
  • products
  • Natural peptide products are one of the most dynamic sources of medicinally significant compounds [ 1 ]. (mdpi.com)
  • mechanisms
  • In the present studies we have chosen polymyxin B (PMB) as a model in an attempt to elucidate the mechanisms by which B. pseudomallei resists the killing action imparted by cationic antimicrobial peptides. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • bound
  • Sometimes the amino group of the bound amino acid is formylated by an F-domain or methylated by an NMT-domain. (wikipedia.org)
  • The nucleophile is polarised and oriented by the base, which is itself bound and stabilised by the acid. (wikipedia.org)
  • human
  • It has been previously reported that B. pseudomallei is resistant to the killing action of cationic antimicrobial peptides, including human neutrophil peptide, protamine sulfate, poly- l -lysine, magainins, and polymyxins. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • In addition, B. pseudomallei demonstrates high levels of resistance to the action of cationic antimicrobial peptides such as polylysine, protamine sulfate, human neutrophil peptides (HNP-1), and polymyxins ( 14 , 21 ). (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • oxidative
  • NB: [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Threonine 'Tyrosine is not an alcohol but a phenol, since its hydroxyl group is bonded directly to an aromatic ring, giving it different acid/base and oxidative properties). (openwetware.org)
  • Vitamin B3 (nicotinic acid or niacin), synthesized from tryptophan is a component of the coenzymes NAD+ and NADP+ which in turn are required for electron transport in the Krebs cycle, oxidative phosphorylation, as well as many other redox reactions. (wikipedia.org)
  • Secretion
  • The total production levels and secretion efficiencies of CsnA and ManB were highest when using the native signal peptides, and both were reduced considerably when using the OmpA signal. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Contact-independent secretion of protein is also part of the T4SS repertoire as exemplified by the secretion of pertussis toxin by Bordetella pertussis [ 3 ]. (royalsocietypublishing.org)
  • covalent
  • An Acid-Base-Nucleophile triad is a common motif for generating a nucleophilic residue for covalent catalysis. (wikipedia.org)
  • amino group
  • Sometimes the amino group of the bound amino acid is formylated by an F-domain or methylated by an NMT-domain. (wikipedia.org)
  • Condensation: The C-domain catalyzes the amide bond formation between the thioester group of the growing peptide chain from the previous module with the amino group of the current module. (wikipedia.org)
  • nucleotide
  • The acceptor stem is a 7- to 9-base pair (bp) stem made by the base pairing of the 5'-terminal nucleotide with the 3'-terminal nucleotide (which contains the CCA 3'-terminal group used to attach the amino acid). (wikipedia.org)
  • membrane
  • Indeed, the peroxisomal membrane protein of 70 kDa and acyl-CoA oxidase 1 are induced at 3 months, possibly reflecting the need for efficient fatty acid β-oxidation, as a compensatory response to mitochondrial dysfunction. (biomedcentral.com)
  • reaction
  • DHA (Dihydroxyacetone, also known as glycerone) is not a dye, stain or paint, but causes a chemical reaction with the amino acids in the dead layer on the skin surface. (wikipedia.org)
  • encode
  • An expanded genetic code is an artificially modified genetic code in which one or more specific codons have been re-allocated to encode an amino acid that is not among the 20 common naturally-encoded proteinogenic amino acids. (wikipedia.org)
  • group
  • This compound then donates its n-propylamine group in the biosynthesis of polyamines such as spermidine and spermine from putrescine. (wikipedia.org)
  • messenger
  • For each coding triplet in the messenger RNA there is a distinct transfer RNA that matches and which carries the correct amino acid for that coding triplet. (wikipedia.org)
  • natural products
  • Nonribosomal peptides are a very diverse family of natural products with an extremely broad range of biological activities and pharmacological properties. (wikipedia.org)
  • include
  • Examples include the original Boots method which involves nitration of phenol with sulfuric acid and sodium nitrate giving a mixture of two isomers, from which the desired 4-nitrophenol is separated by steam distillation. (google.com)
  • bond
  • Also, the peptide can be released by an R-domain that reduces the thioester bond to terminal aldehyde or alcohol. (wikipedia.org)
  • contain
  • tmRNAs typically contain four pseudoknots, one (pk1) upstream of the tag peptide CDS, and the other three pseudoknots (pk2 to pk4) downstream of the CDS. (wikipedia.org)