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  • genes
  • Despite the fact that sugars were not among the substrates reported when C. abyssi was first described, our genomic analysis revealed multiple genes of glycoside hydrolases, and some of them were predicted to be secreted. (frontiersin.org)
  • Specifically, genes for cellulosomal enzymes and components were highly expressed on α-cellulose, while xylanases and glucosidases were up-regulated on 5 carbon sugars with respect to cellobiose. (biomedcentral.com)
  • GroES and GroEL genes are involved in stress tolerance in bacteria: activation of these genes has been observed in stress induced bacteria (Rasouly and Ron, 2009). (uwc.ac.za)
  • phylum
  • The genome of Caldithrix abyssi , the first cultivated representative of a phylum-level bacterial lineage, was sequenced within the framework of Genomic Encyclopedia of Bacteria and Archaea (GEBA) project. (frontiersin.org)
  • pretreatment
  • An effective pretreatment that increases enzymatic hydrolysis sugar yield and reduces enzyme consumption is crucial for reducing ethanol production cost. (ubc.ca)
  • After pretreatment, hemicellulosic sugars, i.e. the pentoses (and also hexoses), are present as monomers while a large fraction of the glucose content is present as glucan fibres in the WIS. (biomedcentral.com)
  • maltose
  • of a variety of carbohydrates, e.g., milk and cane sugars, maltose, cellulose, or glycogen, but it is usually manufactured by hydrolysis of cornstarch cornstarch, material made by pulverizing the ground, dried residue of corn grains after preparatory soaking and the removal of the embryo and the outer covering. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • bacterial
  • They constitute a large fraction of the reduced carbon reservoir in the ocean and enhance the survival of marine bacteria influencing the physicochemical environment in proximity of the bacterial cell. (mdpi.com)
  • Aristilde used an emerging biochemical approach, called metabolomics, to track different sugar carbon atoms inside the bacterial cells and learn why the cell factory does not efficiently convert all sugar carbons into biofuel. (phys.org)
  • Media are initially sterilized, then inoculated with the bacteria that is of interest and finally incubated for twenty four hours or more , to encourage bacterial growth. (blogspot.com)
  • microbial
  • Metabolite labelling reveals hierarchies inthat selectively channel carbons from sugar mixtures towards biofuel precursors, Microbial Biotechnology (2016). (phys.org)
  • ketone
  • Combining these strategies resulted in the most favorable overall phenotypes for simultaneous glucose-xylose consumption without compromising methyl ketone titer at both 1 and 2% total sugar concentrations in shake flasks. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Performance of the methyl ketone-producing strain for this technology has thus far been optimized during growth with glucose [ 2 ], which is typically the dominant sugar in biomass hydrolysates. (biomedcentral.com)
  • organic
  • These bacteria are important in the natural conversion of organic carbons in soils and they are exploited for industrial biofuel production," Aristilde said. (phys.org)
  • hydrolysis
  • Gauss and co-workers, mentioned for instance the advantage that glucose does not need to be separated from the lignin fraction following a separate enzymatic hydrolysis step, thereby avoiding a potential loss of sugar. (biomedcentral.com)
  • pathways
  • Oxygenic phototrophic bacteria, known as cyanobacteria, share similar electron transport pathways with other oxygenic phototrophs (e.g., plants and algae). (frontiersin.org)
  • While the pathways in this discussion start with sugar and finish as various end-products, there are several intermediate compounds formed along the way as one thing is converted to the next. (thefreshloaf.com)
  • The sugar in molasses can be metabolized by many micro-organisms and by several known pathways. (nzdl.org)
  • carbon atoms
  • As carbo - hydrates , sugars are made up of carbon ( C ) and water, which is composed of hydrogen ( H ) and oxygen ( O ). The hydrogen and oxygen atoms are arranged in various configurations around a chain of carbon atoms which form the structural backbone of the molecule. (thefreshloaf.com)
  • production
  • Right now, though, this bacterium is not very efficient at processing complex wastes to biofuel production ," said Ludmilla Aristilde, assistant professor of biological and environmental engineering. (phys.org)
  • Using nonedible plant materials for biofuel production is important to sustainable energy options, and processing these materials involves metabolizing the plant's sugars. (phys.org)
  • In Brazil, however, the production of ethyl alcohol from sugar-cane, manioc, and other tropical plants has become a major project of the government to reduce petroleum imports (Figure 1). (nzdl.org)