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  • proteins
  • As part of the acetoin operon, AphA represses the expression of two PhoB-activated genes, acgA and acgB , that encode proteins which influence motility and biofilm formation by altering c-di-GMP levels in the cell. (asmscience.org)
  • Therefore, we characterized mutants with individual or combined mutations in genes for the low-molecular-mass penicillin-binding proteins PBP3 and PBP4. (asm.org)
  • regulation
  • Hormonal Regulation of Chimeric Genes Containing the Phosphoenolpyruvate Carboxykinase Promoter Regulatory Region in Hepatoma Cells Infected by Murine Retroviruses," Journal of Biological Chemistry 263(33): 17798-17808, 1988. (patentgenius.com)
  • Abstract Background The regulation of genes in multicellular organisms is generally achieved through the combinatorial activity of different transcription factors. (openrepository.com)
  • The proposed concept might also apply to other organisms and could be relevant for a wide range of biotechnological applications in which quantitative gene regulation plays a role. (openrepository.com)
  • precursor
  • The last enzyme of the penicillin biosynthetic pathway (IAT) is synthesized as a 40-kDa precursor (proacyltransferase, proIAT), which undergoes an autocatalytic self-processing between residues Gly102-Cys103 in P. chrysogenum . (beds.ac.uk)
  • cholerae
  • ToxT is a member of the large AraC/XylS family of transcriptional regulators and also activates transcription of five other genes whose roles in V. cholerae pathogenesis, if any, are poorly understood. (asm.org)
  • TCP is a type IV pilus, and the genes required for TCP biogenesis, tcpA to tcpJ , are located within a region of V. cholerae chromosome I having some phage-like properties, the vibrio pathogenicity island (VPI) ( 24 , 25 , 41 , 46 ). (asm.org)
  • V. cholerae communicates by monitoring its population density and alters its gene expression accordingly. (asm.org)
  • ctxAB
  • The genes encoding CT, ctxAB , and the genes encoding the components of the TCP, tcpA to tcpJ , are organized within operons, upstream of which are DNA binding sites for the transcriptional activator ToxT. (asm.org)
  • The genes encoding CT, ctxAB , are located within the genome of a lysogenic filamentous phage, CTXΦ ( 58 ). (asm.org)
  • activators
  • The membrane-localized transcriptional activators ToxR and TcpP, together with their respective cofactors, ToxS and TcpH, are required to activate transcription of the toxT gene by binding to a region upstream of the toxT promoter ( 14 , 15 , 32 , 33 ). (asm.org)
  • cytosine deaminase
  • Transfer of the bacterial gene for cytosine deaminase to mammalian cell confers lethal sensitivity to 5-fluorocytosine: A negative selection system," Proc. (patentgenius.com)
  • bacterial
  • In DNA vaccines, the gene of interest is cloned into a bacterial plasmid that is engineered to induce protein production for long periods in eukaryotic cells. (columbiagypsy.net)
  • The exogenous addition of two purified putative autolysins identified by IVIAT, N-acetylmuramoyl-L-alanine amidases BA0485 and BA2446, to vegetative B. anthracis cell suspensions induced a species-specific change in bacterial morphology and reduction in viable bacterial cells. (tmc.edu)
  • A novel mercury-penicillin V (Hg-pen V) derivative was used as a heavy-metal labeled, electron dense probe for accurately localizing PBPs in situ in single bacterial cells grown to exponential growth-phase. (springer.com)
  • strain
  • The engineered cells, aided by the plasmid amplification at around 50 copies per cell, produce penicillin - G - Amidase constitutively and in considerably higher quantities than does the fully induced parental strain. (alchemystix.com)
  • Disruption of the chromosomal C. perfringens CBAH gene with a chloramphenicol resistance cartridge resulted in a mutant strain which retained partial CBAH activity. (ecu.edu)
  • enzyme
  • The amount of enzyme produced by a microorganism may be increased by increasing the number of gene copies that code for it. (alchemystix.com)
  • toxT
  • Transcriptional activation of acfA and acfD requires a pair of central ToxT binding sites in an inverted-repeat configuration for ToxT-directed transcription of both genes. (asm.org)
  • In this study, we map the aldA and tagA promoters and identify the ToxT binding sites upstream of each gene. (asm.org)
  • Furthermore, to direct transcription of tagA and aldA , ToxT uses independent binding regions upstream of each gene, in contrast to what we previously found for the divergently transcribed acfA and acfD genes, which share ToxT binding sites between the two genes. (asm.org)
  • Cloning
  • Cloning and characterization of a conjugated bile acid hydrolase gene from Clostridium perfringens. (ecu.edu)
  • bacteria
  • Antisense overlapping open reading frames in genes from bacteria to humans Nucleic Acids Research, 22, 1903-1908. (unam.mx)
  • they appear to have been transferred from β-lactam producing bacteria [ 13 - 15 ], unlike the IAT-encoding penDE gene, which contains three introns and seems to have been recruited from the fungal genomes. (beds.ac.uk)
  • Vivo
  • Adenovirus-Mediated Transfer of a Rcombinant .alpha.1-Antitrypsin Gene to the Lung Epithelium in Vivo," Science 252: 431-434, 1991. (patentgenius.com)
  • Null ial mutants and overexpressing strains indicated that IAL lacks acyltransferase (penicillin biosynthetic) and amidohydrolase (6-APA forming) activities in vivo . (beds.ac.uk)
  • activity
  • When the canonical ARL motif (leading to peroxisomal targeting) was added to the C-terminus of the IAL protein (IAL ARL ) by site-directed mutagenesis, no penicillin biosynthetic activity was detected. (beds.ac.uk)
  • results
  • Results obtained from susceptibility tests, lysis experiments and PBP affinity assays revealed few differences between strains and between the antimicrobial activities of Hg-pen V and the parent compound, penicillin V. When cells were grown in the presence of Hg-pen V, Hg-pen V-PBP complexes could readily be visualized by EM of unstained whole mounts as distinct randomly situated electron dense particles. (springer.com)
  • acid
  • It hydrolyzes penicillin G yielding phenyl acetate and 6-aminopenicillanic acid (6-APA). (biomedcentral.com)
  • L-α-aminoadipic acid, L-cysteine and L-valine to form the tripeptide δ (L-α-aminoadipyl)-L-cysteinyl-D-valine (ACV) by the multienzyme ACV synthetase (ACVS), which is encoded by the pcbAB gene. (beds.ac.uk)