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  • gliomas
  • The tumor is isointense to the brain, a distinguishing characteristic as compared to other gliomas and choroid plexus carcinomas. (ispn.guide)
  • typically
  • These tumors are typically well circumscribed. (ispn.guide)
  • The tumor typically has variable contrast enhancement and frequently demonstrates increased vascularity, with minimal surrounding edema. (ispn.guide)
  • oncology
  • In two North American prospective studies performed by the Children's Cancer Group and the Pediatric Oncology Group for children aged 3 years or younger at diagnosis, retrospective review disclosed that approximately 10% of children with brain tumors had AT/RTs. (cancer.gov)
  • Activity of high-dose cyclophosphamide in the treatment of childhood malignant gliomas," Medical and Pediatric Oncology , vol. 30, no. 2, pp. 75-80, 1998. (hindawi.com)
  • Treatment of patients with pineoblastoma with high dose cyclophosphamide," Medical and Pediatric Oncology , vol. 26, no. 6, pp. 387-392, 1996. (hindawi.com)
  • High-dose chemotherapy with autologous stem-cell rescue in patients with recurrent and high-risk pediatric brain tumors," Journal of Clinical Oncology , vol. 15, no. 5, pp. 1814-1823, 1997. (hindawi.com)
  • A study of sequential high dose cyclophosphamide and high dose carboplatin with peripheral stem-cell rescue in resistant or recurrent pediatric brain tumors," Journal of Neuro-Oncology , vol. 71, no. 2, pp. 181-187, 2005. (hindawi.com)
  • Brain magnetic resonance imaging after high-dose chemotherapy and radiotherapy for childhood brain tumors," International Journal of Radiation Oncology Biology Physics , vol. 70, no. 4, pp. 1011-1019, 2008. (hindawi.com)
  • embryonal tumors
  • A Taiwanese study found that AT/RTs account for 26% of primitive or embryonal tumors in children younger than 3 years. (cancer.gov)
  • Embryonal tumors are a collection of biologically heterogeneous lesions that share the tendency to disseminate throughout the nervous system via cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) pathways. (cancer.gov)
  • The pathologic diagnosis of embryonal tumors is based primarily on histological and immunohistological microscopic features. (cancer.gov)
  • However, molecular genetic studies are employed increasingly to subclassify embryonal tumors. (cancer.gov)
  • Pineoblastoma, which in the past was conventionally grouped with embryonal tumors, is categorized by the WHO as a pineal parenchymal tumor. (cancer.gov)
  • Given that therapies for pineoblastomas are quite similar to those utilized for embryonal tumors, pineoblastomas are discussed in this summary. (cancer.gov)
  • It has become increasingly clear, especially for medulloblastomas, that outcome is also related to the molecular characteristics of the tumor, but this has not been definitively shown for other embryonal tumors. (cancer.gov)
  • primary
  • A primary tumor originates in the brain. (columbianeurosurgery.org)
  • The histologic properties of extracranial GCTs are heterogeneous and vary by primary tumor site and the sex and age of the patient. (wellspan.org)
  • This article aims to provide an overview of the imaging manifestations and appearances of the most common primary posterior fossa brain tumors in children. (jaocr.org)
  • Thirty consecutive children (1-182 days old) who underwent primary resection for a brain tumor during the years 1973-2012 were included in this retrospective study on surgical morbidity, mortality rate, academic achievement, and/or work participation. (springer.com)
  • In most cases, swelling and/or pain at the tumor site are the primary signs. (chestwall.org)
  • incidence
  • 1) Though surgical excision and chemotherapy are established treatment modalities for these tumors, the five year survival rate for most cases is less than 25% due to the high incidence of systemic metastases at presentation. (pediatriconcall.com)
  • The exact incidence of childhood CNS AT/RT is difficult to determine because the tumor has only been recognized since 1996. (cancer.gov)
  • The Austrian Brain Tumor Registry (recruitment period, 1996-2006) confirmed that AT/RTs represented the sixth most common malignant brain tumor among 311 newly diagnosed children (6.1%), with a peak incidence during the first 2 years of life. (cancer.gov)
  • infantile
  • Two of the more common infantile brain tumors, glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) and desmoplastic infantile tumors (DITs), can be difficult to distinguish on MRI. (thejns.org)
  • The authors report on their institutional experience with both tumors, focusing on radio-graphic features, especially the diffusion studies, which might be useful in distinguishing between infantile GBM and DIT. (thejns.org)
  • A retrospective review was undertaken of all infantile brain tumors treated at British Columbia's Children's Hospital between 1982 and 2012, and cases of GBM and DIT were recorded. (thejns.org)
  • Of 70 cases of infantile brain tumors, 2 GBM cases and 3 DIT cases (all 3 of which were desmoplastic infantile gangliogliomas [DIGs]) met the inclusion criteria. (thejns.org)
  • Magnetic resonance imaging, especially diffusion-weighted imaging, may be a useful aid in distinguishing between infantile GBM and DIT tumors, with infantile GBM demonstrating restricted diffusion. (thejns.org)
  • Coffin CM (2007) Infantile soft tissue tumors. (springer.com)
  • Infantile fibrosarcoma should be distinguished from giant cell fibroblastoma, a benign, nonmetastasizing tumor. (chestwall.org)
  • Ewing's
  • Ewing's sarcoma (ES) was first described as an osteolytic bone tumor composed of malignant, small round cells by James Ewing in 1921. (kjim.org)
  • newly diagnosed
  • Outcome for young children newly diagnosed with ependymoma, treated with intensive induction chemotherapy followed by myeloablative chemotherapy and autologous stem cell rescue," Pediatric Blood and Cancer , vol. 49, no. 1, pp. 34-40, 2007. (hindawi.com)
  • residual tumor
  • Postoperative MR images of the head and spine for 17 patients were reviewed for the presence of locally recurrent or residual tumor and disseminated neoplasm. (ajnr.org)
  • It is remarkable in that it has a documented spontaneous rate of resolution and is also one of the few tumors in which the surgical capsule can be violated and a good outcome might be achieved, even if residual tumor is left behind. (medscape.com)
  • diagnosis
  • Core needle biopsy was suggestive of malignant small round cell tumor with pPNET as the first differential diagnosis. (pediatriconcall.com)
  • On immunohistochemistry, tumors cells were strongly positively for CD99 marker which endorsed the diagnosis of pPNET. (pediatriconcall.com)
  • 1 , 2 ] Brain tumors are classified according to histology, but immunohistochemical analysis, cytogenetic and molecular genetic findings, and measures of mitotic activity are increasingly used in tumor diagnosis and classification. (cancer.gov)
  • Disseminated tumor in the leptomeninges was seen with MR imaging in 24% of patients at diagnosis/initial staging and occurred in another 35% from 4 months to 2.8 years (mean, 1.1 years) after surgery and earlier imaging examinations with negative findings. (ajnr.org)
  • Immunohistochemical analysis, cytogenetic and molecular genetic findings, and measures of mitotic activity are increasingly used in tumor diagnosis and classification. (cancer.gov)
  • Acute Pediatric Neurology provides an accessible, clinically focused guide to assist physicians in the emergency ward or intensive care unit in decisions on diagnosis and therapeutic interventions in all major acute pediatric neurological diseases. (stanford.edu)
  • Excision of the tumor with a distal pancreatectomy and splenectomy was performed and the specimen was received in our laboratory for histopathological examination and diagnosis. (kjim.org)
  • nervous system
  • 1 , 3 - 10 These tumors have aggressive growth with high potential for dissemination within the central nervous system (CNS). (ajnr.org)
  • However, a convention, which has been accepted by the WHO, also separates these tumors on the basis of presumed location of origin within the central nervous system (CNS). (cancer.gov)
  • Embryologically, tumors of the sympathetic nervous system differentiate along two distinct pathways, either the pheochromocytoma line or the sympathoblastoma line. (medscape.com)
  • arises
  • A somewhat closely aligned tumor, pineal parenchymal tumor of intermediate differentiation, has recently been identified but is not considered an embryonal tumor and primarily arises in adults. (cancer.gov)