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  • enhancer
  • In the promoter region of PDX-1, there are three highly conserved regions, termed "Area I-II-III" which are located between -2800 and -1600 base pairs (bp), and a forth distal enhancer element, termed "Area IV" which is located between -6500 and -6045 bp. (atlasgeneticsoncology.org)
  • These enhancer elements harbor binding sites for multiple transcription factors and transcriptional regulators such as HNF-1alpha, HNF-3beta, HNF-6, Foxa1 , Foxa2, Pax6 , MafA and PDX-1 itself. (atlasgeneticsoncology.org)
  • the complex binds to the enhancer B element and cooperates with the transcription factor 1 complex (PTF1) bound to the enhancer A element. (genecards.org)
  • mediates
  • The Antp-type hexapeptide mediates heterodimerization with PBX on a regulatory element of the somatostatin promoter. (abcam.com)
  • mutations
  • Several C-terminal residues such as Gly 212, Glu 224 and Pro 239 are essential for full transactivation of PDX-1 as evidenced by the association of their missense mutations with diabetes (Fig. 2). (atlasgeneticsoncology.org)
  • Findings that neonatal diabetes is most commonly due to activating mutations in genes encoding the ATP-sensitive potassium channel subunits Kir6.2 or SUR1 and can be treated with high-dose sulfonylureas despite being insulin dependent also provide a compelling case for genetic evaluation of monogenic diabetes with therapeutic and prognostic implications ( 2 - 6 ). (diabetesjournals.org)
  • intolerance
  • A model to study the mechanisms of impaired islet adaptation in insulin resistance is the high-fat feeding of C57BL/6J mice, which are especially susceptible to high-fat treatment with regard to the development of glucose intolerance compared with other strains ( 2 , 3 ). (diabetesjournals.org)
  • mammalian
  • Disclosed are mammalian (e.g., human) cells, populations and pluralitires of cells and cell cultures that can be obtained or derived from menstrual tissue or blood that possess pluripotency (i.e., the ability to differentiate into various cell types). (lens.org)