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  • elegans
  • We show that one of the pathways acting upstream of RHO‐1 in acetylcholine (ACh)‐releasing motor neurons depends on Gα12 (GPA‐12), which acts via the single C. elegans RGS RhoGEF (RHGF‐1). (embopress.org)
  • Thus, the upstream GPA‐12/RHGF‐1 pathway stimulates only a subset of RHO‐1 downstream effectors, suggesting that either the RHO‐1 effectors require different levels of activated RHO‐1 for activation or there are two distinct pools of RHO‐1 within C. elegans neurons. (embopress.org)
  • polyol pathway
  • High glucose levels increase the flux of sugar molecules through the polyol pathway, which causes sorbitol accumulation in cells. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Pugliese G, Tilton RG, Speedy A, Chang K, Province MA, Kilo C, Williamson JR (1990) Vascular filtration function in galactose-fed versus diabetic rats: the role of polyol pathway activity. (springer.com)
  • Gonzales AM, Sochor M, Hothersall JS, McLean P (1986) Effect of aldose reductase inhibitor (sorbinil) on integration of polyol pathway, pentose phosphate pathway and glycolytic route in diabetic rat lens. (springer.com)
  • metabolic pathways
  • In this study, a genome-wide search for components of major carbohydrate metabolic pathways was performed in I. scapularis ticks for which the genome was recently published. (frontiersin.org)
  • The enzymes involved in the seven major carbohydrate metabolic pathways glycolysis, gluconeogenesis, pentose phosphate, tricarboxylic acid cycle (TCA), glyceroneogenesis, and mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation and β-oxidation were identified. (frontiersin.org)
  • The results showed that major carbohydrate metabolic pathways are conserved in ticks. (frontiersin.org)
  • The present work provides a more comprehensive view of the major carbohydrate metabolic pathways involved in the response to A. phagocytophilum infection in ticks, and provides the basis for further studies to develop novel strategies for the control of granulocytic anaplasmosis. (frontiersin.org)
  • Signaling
  • Genetic model organisms provide a number of powerful experimental advantages for defining the genes and genetic pathways involved in biological processes such as Ca 2+ signaling. (rupress.org)
  • Despite the crucial role of the TCR in Treg generation and maintenance, neither the specific signaling pathways that control Treg generation nor the nature of the TCR signals required for their division in the periphery are well understood. (upenn.edu)
  • Furthermore, activation of the IL-2-induced STAT5 pathway is minimally sufficient to support Treg division independent of TCR signaling. (upenn.edu)
  • Our preliminary experiments showed that diacylglycerol (DAG) signaling promotes Treg differentiation. (upenn.edu)
  • Deletion of diacylglycerol kinase ζ, a negative regulator of this pathway, resulted in augmented DAG signaling and enhanced Treg generation. (upenn.edu)
  • Future studies are necessary to establish the DAG pathway as a link between TCR signaling and Treg differentiation. (upenn.edu)
  • We hypothesized that DGK might prevent GPCR agonist-induced activation of diacylglycerol downstream signaling cascades and subsequent cardiac hypertrophy. (ahajournals.org)
  • Mechanism
  • These findings have clearly demonstrated a possible common biochemical mechanism by which hyperglycemia and hypergalactosemia can chronically activate the DAG-PKC pathway in the vasculature and could be a possible explanation for the development of diabetic vascular complications. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • phosphatidylcholine
  • Contribution of different pathways to the supply of phosphatidylethanolamine and phosphatidylcholine to mitochondrial membranes of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. (genome.jp)
  • accumulation
  • Activated GPA‐12 has the same effect as activated RHO‐1, inducing the accumulation of diacylglycerol and the neuromodulator UNC‐13 at release sites, and increased ACh release. (embopress.org)