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  • outgrowth
  • For example, IQGAP1 expression is necessary for neuronal process outgrowth on the cell adhesion molecule PTPmu (PTPRM). (wikipedia.org)
  • PI3K
  • Chronic inhibition of PI3K or mTOR reduced soma and dendrite size and dendritic complexity, as well as density of dendritic filopodia and spines, whereas a short-term inhibition promoted the formation of mushroom-shaped spines on cells expressing constitutively active mutants of Ras, PI3K, or Akt, or treated with the upstream activator BDNF. (jneurosci.org)
  • The Akt Pathway, or PI3K-Akt Pathway is a signal transduction pathway that promotes survival and growth in response to extracellular signals. (wikipedia.org)
  • A major antagonist of PI3K activity is PTEN (phosphatase and tensin homolog), a tumour suppressor which is often mutated or lost in cancer cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • vitro
  • Our findings support limited, controlled passaging of patient-specific hiPSC-RPE to procure cells needed for in vitro disease modeling, drug screening, and cellular transplantation. (arvojournals.org)
  • negatively
  • Interestingly, in yeasts, the Greatwall-Endosulfine pathway is negatively regulated by TOR Complex 1 (TORC1). (mdpi.com)
  • cascades
  • It cycles between inactive GDP-bound and active GTP-bound states and function as molecular switches in signal transduction cascades. (wikipedia.org)
  • signal
  • Suberites consist of many telomerase-positive cells, which means the cells are essentially immortal, barring cell death signal. (wikipedia.org)
  • BCR functions are required for normal antibody production, and defects in BCR signal transduction may lead to immunodeficency, and B-cell malignancy. (wikipedia.org)
  • radial glial cells
  • They then transit to become radial glial cells that undergo asymmetric, neurogenic divisions to generate the neurons and glial cells in the brain ( Götz and Huttner, 2005 ). (jneurosci.org)
  • Each layer is formed by radial glial cells located in the ventricular zone or subventricular zone, and then migrate to their final destination. (wikipedia.org)
  • These layers are the last to form during corticogenesis and include pyramidal neurons, astrocytes, Stellates, and radial glial cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Furthermore
  • Furthermore, the SC down-regulated the expression of PCNA, Rb, CDK4, BcL-2, SVV, and CD44 (metastasis inducing stem cell factor) in the BC cell lines. (jcancer.org)
  • growth
  • Cell growth and division are two processes tightly coupled in proliferating cells. (mdpi.com)
  • In this review, we discuss the recent findings on how the Greatwall-Endosulfine pathway may provide a connection between cell growth and the cell cycle machinery. (mdpi.com)
  • These observations suggest that connections must exist between the pathways that regulate cell growth and the cell cycle machinery. (mdpi.com)
  • PAK inactivation in S/G2 resulted in depolarized growth of the mother and bud and a loss of actin polarity. (rupress.org)
  • As the bud grows, actin patches and cables polarize to the bud tip, allowing apical growth of the bud. (rupress.org)
  • After cytokinesis, actin patches are depolarized in both the mother and daughter, and isotropic growth occurs. (rupress.org)
  • however, isotropic cell surface growth and the nuclear division cycle continue. (rupress.org)
  • control
  • Mesenchymal Stems cells (MSC, control) and two BC cell lines were treated with six well established pro-apoptotic phytochemicals individually and in combination (super cocktail), at bioavailable levels. (jcancer.org)
  • However, there were no deleterious effects on MSC cells used as control. (jcancer.org)
  • protrusions
  • Dendritic spines, highly specialized actin-based protrusions, are the primary site of excitatory synapses and are thought to function as the basic unit of synaptic integration. (jneurosci.org)