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  • molecular pathways
  • Although it should be noted that not all SCO/vel defects have been proven to precede the onset of hydrocephaly, indeed it is the aberrant execution of these diverse molecular pathways that can lead to stenosis of the aqueduct and contribute to communicating or non-communicating hydrocephalus. (physiology.org)
  • Identification of the genes and molecular pathways responsible for the development of VHD has important implications in terms of improving current therapeutic strategies, as well as guiding the management of at-risk family members, with the ultimate aim to reduce the health burden of VHD. (ahajournals.org)
  • Therefore, concurrent studies on the molecular pathways regulating valvulogenesis have sought to highlight gene networks relevant to VHD. (ahajournals.org)
  • However, the molecular pathways leading to such phenotype are still unknown. (mdpi.com)
  • Distinct molecular pathways for development of telencephalic interneuron subtypes revealed through analysis of Lhx6 mutants. (nih.gov)
  • Fgfs
  • Epithelium-derived signals such as bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs), fibroblast growth factors (FGFs), sonic hedgehog (SHH), and WNT induce autoregulatory positive signaling and mutual inhibitory feedback within and between the epithelium and the mesenchyme to orchestrate the molecular interplay required for lower-jaw outgrowth ( 5 , 7 - 13 ). (asm.org)
  • osteoblast
  • We outline how this model has been used to elucidate some of the molecular mechanisms which underlie these differences and place these findings into the context of our current understanding of the key, highly conserved, pathways which govern the osteoblast lineage including FGF, BMP, Wnt and TGFβ signaling. (mdpi.com)
  • Mechanism
  • The identification of a novel function of Msx1 as a p53 regulator may open new avenues for developing improved molecular therapies for tumors with a nonmutational p53 inactivation mechanism. (aacrjournals.org)
  • epithelial
  • hCG and transforming growth factor- (TGF-) β increase LIF secretion by the cultured endometrial epithelial cells derived from follicular and secretory phases of the menstrual cycle [ 15 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • involvement
  • Although malformation of the SCO during gestation leads to ventricular dilation and aqueductal stenosis before birth (FIGURE 1, B AND C ⇓ ) ( 32 , 80 ), the involvement of specific factors has been slowly elucidated over the past decade through the analysis of mutant mouse models. (physiology.org)
  • represents
  • The Wnt signaling pathway represents the principal evolutionarily conserved signaling cascade found in all multicellular organisms. (cuni.cz)
  • significantly
  • Inhibition of the Wnt/β-catenin pathway significantly abrogated the invasion effects of irradiation, indicating a pivotal role of the Wnt/β-catenin pathway in ionizing radiation-induced invasion of U87 cells ( 9 ). (spandidos-publications.com)
  • After 3 days of MMA III and DMA III exposure, co-localization patterns were significantly changed in the myogenic pathway. (clemson.edu)
  • In the neurogenic pathway, NeuroD1's nuclear localization was significantly decreased in day 5 EBs after exposure to both MMA and DMA. (clemson.edu)
  • evidence
  • Recent evidence shows that several proteins involved in oncogenesis, such as ADP ribosylation factor, oncogenic Ras, RB, and TSG101, also affect the stability of p53 by modulating Mdm2-mediated degradation (reviewed in ref. 7 ). (aacrjournals.org)
  • growth
  • Overexpression of homeobox Msx1 induced apoptosis of cancer cells harboring nonfunctional wild-type p53 and suppressed growth of human tumor xenografts in nude mice. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Mechanical
  • Thus, blocking the Hippo pathway input to Yap may tip the balance so that Yap responds to mechanical changes associated with heart injury to promote repair. (phalanx.com.tw)
  • expression
  • We found that arsenic and its metabolites, monomethylarsonous (MMA III) acid and dimethylarsinous (DMA III) acid, target a specific population of progenitor cells termed the neural plate border specifier (NPBS) cells by reducing the expression of signals required for neurogenesis (Pax3, Sox10, and NeuroD1) and myogenesis (Msx1, MyoD, and Myogenin). (clemson.edu)
  • Starting on day 2, in the neurogenic pathway, and day 3 in the myogenic pathway, arsenic is targeting the neural plate border specifier (NPBS) cells, which resulted in reduced transcription factor expression of Pax3 and Msx1. (clemson.edu)
  • In the neurogenic pathway, it appears that MMA III is targeting the neural plate border specifier cells on day 3, while DMA III does not affect transcription factor expression until day 5. (clemson.edu)
  • These include activation of transcription factors, expression of specific cell-surface proteins, reorganization and expression of cytoskeletal proteins, production of ECM-degrading enzymes, and changes in the expression of specific microRNAs. (jci.org)
  • human
  • Since Hoxa2 deregulation in mice induces a proportionate short stature phenotype mimicking human idiopathic conditions, our results give an insight into understanding proportionate short stature pathogenesis by highlighting molecular factors whose combined deregulation may be involved in such a disease. (mdpi.com)
  • Identification
  • The identification of the signaling pathways that lead to activation of EMT programs during these disease processes is providing new insights into the plasticity of cellular phenotypes and possible therapeutic interventions. (jci.org)