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  • lipid
  • A new class of Ag-presenting proteins had been found for lipid Ags. (jimmunol.org)
  • Lipid signaling, broadly defined, refers to any biological signaling event involving a lipid messenger that binds a protein target, such as a receptor, kinase or phosphatase, which in turn mediate the effects of these lipids on specific cellular responses. (wikipedia.org)
  • melanosomes
  • Here, we show that the v-SNARE VAMP7 mediates fusion of melanosomes with tubular transport carriers that also carry the cargo protein TYRP1 and that require BLOC-1 for their formation. (rupress.org)
  • Using live-cell imaging, we identify a pathway for VAMP7 recycling from melanosomes that employs distinct tubular carriers. (rupress.org)
  • Our data suggest that VAMP7 mediates fusion of BLOC-1-dependent transport carriers with melanosomes, illuminate SNARE recycling from melanosomes as a critical BLOC-3-dependent step, and likely explain the distinct hypopigmentation phenotypes associated with BLOC-1 and BLOC-3 deficiency in Hermansky-Pudlak syndrome variants. (rupress.org)
  • In an effort to understand the molecular basis of these diseases, we are dissecting the molecular mechanisms that regulate how different stage melanosomes are formed and integrated with the endosomal pathway. (upenn.edu)
  • endosomal
  • Regulation of antigen processing and toll-like receptor signaling by endosomal trafficking pathways. (upenn.edu)
  • This endosomal protein regulates the cell-surface expression of epidermal growth factor receptor. (genecards.org)
  • extracellular
  • Non-vesicular mechanism use a carrier to get protein into extracellular space (for example phosphatidylinositol-4,5-bisphoshate). (wikipedia.org)
  • In 2006, he moved to CIC bioGUNE and started his research in the study on EXOSOMES -extracellular vesicles of endocytic origin- as a source for biomarker discovery and a tool for therapeutic applications, and METABOLOMICS as a platform for unraveling markers and metabolic pathways altered in diseases. (cicbiogune.es)
  • An appreciation of the functional properties of the cytoplasmic fatty acid binding protein 4 (FABP4) has advanced with the recent demonstration that an extracellular form secreted by adipocytes regulates a wide range of physiological functions. (rupress.org)
  • autophagy
  • Knockdown of GCN5L1, a component of the mitochondrial acetyltransferase machinery, diminished mitochondrial protein acetylation and augmented mitochondrial enrichment of autophagy mediators. (biologists.org)
  • Taken together, these data suggest that deacetylation of mitochondrial proteins initiates mitochondrial autophagy in a canonical autophagy-mediator-dependent program and shows that modulation of this regulatory program has ameliorative mitochondrial homeostatic effects. (biologists.org)
  • secretion
  • Two types of unconventional protein secretion are these: signal-peptid-containing proteins and cytoplasmatic and nuclear proteins that are missing an ER-signal peptide (1). (wikipedia.org)
  • These findings chart the pathway of FABP4 secretion and provide a potential therapeutic means to control metabolic disorders associated with its dysregulated secretion. (rupress.org)
  • cells
  • Most studies say that hormones can only affect cells when they are not bound by serum proteins. (wikipedia.org)
  • Furthermore, it was endozytosed and degraded in lysosomes by Megalin expressing cells. (hu-berlin.de)
  • Because CD1 proteins are distinct in sequence and structure from MHC proteins, T cells that recognize CD1 should not be MHC restricted. (jimmunol.org)
  • Among several dozen DN T cell lines that had been generated, equally divided among DN TCRαβ and TCRγδ lines, one additional DN TCRαβ cell line was found that also lysed MOLT4 cells that do not express any MHC proteins ( 5 ). (jimmunol.org)
  • Later, CD4 + (and some CD8 + ) T cells that recognize CD1 proteins were found, and the DN characteristic that led to the discovery diminished in importance. (jimmunol.org)
  • A protein trafficking defect present in the brain cells may be responsible for non-familial forms of Parkinson's disease, according to a new study conducted by researchers at Columbia University Medical Center (CUMC). (medindia.net)
  • In this study, defects in the retromer pathway also appear to have profound effects on the cell's disposal machinery, which may explain why Parkinson's disease brain cells ultimately accumulate large protein aggregates. (medindia.net)
  • To identify internalization pathways that are required for cationic LNP entry into cells we depleted key endocytic regulators using siRNA in HeLa cells. (nih.gov)
  • PRKAG1 NM_002733 Homo sapiens protein kinase, AMP-activated, gamma 1 non-catalytic subunit (PRKAG1), mRNA PRKAR1A NM_002734 Regulatory subunit of the cAMP-dependent protein kinases involved in cAMP signaling in cells PRKRIP1 NM_024653 Binds double-stranded RNA. (wikipedia.org)
  • The stress proteins that are the main component of stress granules in plant cells are molecular chaperones that sequester, protect, and possibly repair proteins that unfold during heat and other types of stress. (wikipedia.org)
  • biochemical
  • During his Ph.D at the Biomedical Research Institute "Alberto Sols" in Madrid, Dr. Falcon carried out an extensive biochemical analysis of the Ycf1 carrier of S. cerevisiae, as model for the study of CFTR protein that is responsible of Cystic Fibrosis (CF) human disease. (cicbiogune.es)
  • unconventional
  • Most of these proteins are involved in processes in higher eukaryotes, however unconventional export mechanism was found in lower eukaryotes too. (wikipedia.org)
  • Intermediate
  • Methionine synthase reductase (MTRR) is primarily involved in the reductive methylation of homocysteine to methionine, utilizing methylcob(I)alamin as an intermediate methyl carrier. (wikipedia.org)
  • retromer
  • The trafficking defects associated with Parkinson's can be reversed by increasing retromer pathway activity, suggesting a possible therapeutic strategy. (medindia.net)
  • Taken together, the findings suggest that drugs that target the retromer pathway could help prevent or treat Parkinson's," said study leader Asa Abeliovich, MD, PhD, associate professor of pathology and cell biology and of neurology in the Taub Institute for Research on Alzheimer's Disease and the Aging Brain at CUMC. (medindia.net)
  • Mutations that affect the retromer pathway have also been found in familial Parkinson's disease. (medindia.net)
  • It will be interesting to look for drugs that directly target these retromer components or that more generally promote flow through the pathway," said Dr. Abeliovich. (medindia.net)
  • genetic
  • This suggests that there is a pre-disease state in unaffected carriers of the two genetic variants that favors early disease onset and that, in theory, could be targeted therapeutically. (medindia.net)
  • Mutations
  • Mutations that alter only the C-terminal of the protein also result in a mild phenotype of the disorder, usually sparing the brain. (wikipedia.org)
  • In the Ashkenazi Jewish population there are two severe mutations with a higher carrier frequency of 1:90 to 1:100. (wikipedia.org)
  • physiological
  • We highlight the physiological significance of this pathway with the demonstration that an increase in plasma levels of FABP4 is inhibited by chloroquine treatment of mice. (rupress.org)
  • Researchers dispute the physiological role of the protein product and which ion it transports. (wikipedia.org)
  • genomic
  • The hormone then follows a genomic pathway of action. (wikipedia.org)
  • Genomic and sequence analysis established that this protein and four paralogues on human chromosome 1 encoded closely related proteins called CD1a, CD1b, CD1c, CD1d, and CD1e, which were distantly related to the H chains of human MHC class I proteins HLA-A, -B, and -C encoded on chromosome 6 ( 3 , 4 ). (jimmunol.org)
  • effector
  • These effector proteins manipulate a large number of host cell processes and force the host cell to create a suitable microenvironment for Salmonella ( 7 , 12 , 13 ). (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Enzymes
  • These include enzymes called ceramide-activated Ser-Thr phosphatases (CAPPs), such as protein phosphatase 1 and 2A (PP1 and PP2A), which were found to interact with ceramide in studies done in a controlled environment outside of a living organism (in vitro). (wikipedia.org)