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  • induces
  • OxLDL signals through TLR4, as well as CD36 and TLR6, which impairs the LPS-induce immune response and induces the formation of foam cells. (news-medical.net)
  • The ced-8 gene encodes a putative Xkr8-like phospholipid scramblase that, once cleaved by active CED-3 caspase in a dying cell, induces the externalization of phosphatidylserine (PtdSer) to the cell surface of this cell. (gaselectricity.in)
  • Signaling
  • The stimulation of macrophages by certain ligands, as well as pathogen-induced signaling also contribute to the formation of foam cells from macrophages. (news-medical.net)
  • This signaling changes the metabolic state of macrophages resulting in decreased cholesterol efflux, which causes increased foam cell formation. (news-medical.net)
  • Notch signaling augmented the activity of BMP9‑induced BMP/Smad signaling and increased the gene expression of essential osteogenic factors induced by BMP9 in MSCs, such as runt‑related transcription factor 2 (Runx2), type I collagen (Colla1) and inhibitor of differentiation (Id)1. (spandidos-publications.com)
  • Predicated on these results, it's been recommended that Hh signaling takes Divalproex sodium on several tasks in cancer advancement: like a tumor drivers, tumor promoter, tumor metastasis promoter, or tumor stem cell promotor. (bioinf.org)
  • As previously talked about, activating mutations of Hh signaling can travel the introduction of BCCs, medulloblastomas, rhabdomyosarcomas, gastrointestinal stromal-like tumors, and Barretts esophagus.23 In little cell lung tumor (SCLC), Hh signaling may promote cancer advancement but cannot travel tumor formation. (bioinf.org)
  • Leucine (Leu) is an essential branched-chain amino acid, which activates the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) signaling pathway. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Mechanistically, Leu increases the intracellular levels of hypoxia-inducible factor 1-α, a repressor of endocrine fate in the pancreas, by activating the mTOR complex 1 signaling pathway. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • The Notch1 signaling pathway is indispensable for initiation of the T-cell lineage and inhibitory for the B-cell lineage, but the regulatory mechanisms by which the T-cell fate is locked in are largely undefined. (asm.org)
  • Signaling through the pre-TCR is required for survival, proliferation, and further differentiation of DN3 cells, and this progression is known as β selection ( 26 ). (asm.org)
  • However, by the late DN3 stage, both of these receptors are downregulated, rendering DN3 cells dependent solely on pre-TCR and Notch1-DL signaling for survival ( 14 ). (asm.org)
  • DN1 cells express GATA3, PU.1, and Id2, and upon Notch-DL signaling upregulate Bcl11b ( 33 ) and the E protein HEBAlt ( 34 , 48 ). (asm.org)
  • Compromised Notch1-DL signaling, on the other hand, leads to intrathymic B-cell development at the expense of T cells ( 36 , 37 ). (asm.org)
  • We have also revealed that stimulation of either α 1 -adrenoceptor or angiotensin II type 1 receptor (AT 1 R) leads to an increase in human iPS cell proliferation via Gq-dependent MEK/ERK and PI3K/Akt signaling pathways independent of FGF2. (springer.com)
  • Activation of the Smad signaling pathway by bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs) and activin/nodal has been shown to promote cardiovascular differentiation of mouse and human ES or iPS cells. (springer.com)
  • It has been revealed that stimulation of either β-adrenoceptors or 5-HT 4 receptors enhances the RA-induced differentiation of mouse iPS cells into NPCs through activation of the cAMP/PKA signaling pathway and the enhancement of CREB phosphorylation. (springer.com)
  • Collectively, these data demonstrate that ERRα is required for normal skeletal myocyte differentiation via modulation of MAP kinase signaling. (physiology.org)
  • Since PTEN is the upstream negative regulator of AKT signaling pathway, we then confirmed that pre-21 induced Akt phosphorylation, while LNA-21 decreased it. (bmj.com)
  • Simultaneously, the Wnt and Notch signaling pathways were co-activated, as confirmed by the increased expression of β-catenin and notch1. (medsci.org)
  • Increasing evidence indicated that the Wnt signaling pathway was responsible for the morphogenesis and cycle maintenance of the hair follicle. (medsci.org)
  • Hp gas online login 12 Interestingly, this novel signaling function involves not the cell that is programmed to die, but rather its mother. (gaselectricity.in)
  • inhibitor
  • Objective- Cilostazol, a potent type 3 phosphodiesterase inhibitor, has recently been found to reduce neointimal formation by inhibiting vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMC) proliferation. (ahajournals.org)
  • Cells were also cultured with or without TGF-β1, TGF-β inhibitors and Wnt inhibitor XAV939. (arvojournals.org)
  • Th17
  • Absence of T cell intrinsic BCAP did not alter development of naturally arising Th1 and Th17 lineages but led to defects in differentiation to pathogenic Th17 lineage cells. (rupress.org)
  • To explore the phenomenon that corneal and conjunctival tissues subjected to desiccating stress (DS) promote Th17 differentiation by stimulating the production of Th17-inducing cytokines through a dendritic cell (DC)-mediated pathway. (arvojournals.org)
  • CD4 + T cells cocultured with DCs and epithelial explants from dry eye mice expressed increased levels of IL-17A, IL-17F, IL-22, CCL-20, and retinoic acid receptor-related orphan receptor-γt mRNA transcripts and increased IL-17A protein and number of IL-17-producing T cells (Th17 cells). (arvojournals.org)
  • These findings demonstrate that DS creates an environment on the ocular surface that stimulates the production of Th17-inducing cytokines by corneal and conjunctival epithelia that promote Th17 differentiation through a dendritic cell-mediated pathway. (arvojournals.org)
  • interleukin (IL)-4-, IL-5-, and IL-13-secreting Th2, 1 and IL-17-producing Th17 cells. (arvojournals.org)
  • 2 , 3 Th17 has recently been identified as a T helper cell subset distinct from Th1 and Th2 cells. (arvojournals.org)
  • epithelial
  • Moreover, bulge stem cells can give rise to different epithelial cell types of hair follicles and participate in the formation of hair follicles, epidermis and sebaceous glands. (medsci.org)
  • cancers
  • Growing evidence demonstrates that the alteration of the CRL-NEDD8 pathway in some cancers constitutes an attractive target for therapeutic intervention, but the roles of CRL-NEDD8 pathway in acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL) is still unclear. (medsci.org)
  • precursors
  • Here, we report that HEB −/− T-cell precursors have compromised Notch1 function and lose T-cell potential. (asm.org)
  • Moreover, reconstituting HEB −/− precursors with Notch1 activity enforced fidelity to the T-cell fate. (asm.org)
  • contributes
  • The accumulation of foam cells contributes to the development of atherosclerosis by progressing plaque formation and causing the formation of unstable plaques. (news-medical.net)
  • This strongly suggests that the interaction of prostatic cancer cells with cells of the osteoblast lineage contributes to the lethal progression of prostate cancer, although the molecular nature of this interaction is still poorly understood. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Notch
  • HEB −/− DN1-like cells retained GATA3 and Id2 expression but had lower levels of the Bcl11b gene, a Notch target gene. (asm.org)
  • NPCs
  • Importantly, stabilized β-catenin did not induce neuronal differentiation of cortical NPCs at earlier developmental stages, consistent with previous reports indicating self-renewal-promoting functions of Wnts in early NPCs. (biologists.org)
  • Moreover
  • Moreover, treatment of osteoblasts with conditioned medium obtained from MDA PCa 2b cells resulted in up-regulation of Cbfa1 and Osteocalcin expression. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Moreover, the number of 5-bromo-2'deoxyuridine-5-monophosphate-labeled cells in the DES-treated testis was significantly reduced at E12.5 and E14.5, compared with controls, and that in the DES-treated ovary remained higher than that in the control ovary at E14.5. (diethylstilbestrol.co.uk)
  • lineage
  • In this study I investigated the effects of BMP in the Schwann cell lineage in vitro. (bl.uk)
  • DN1 cells become specified to the T lineage upon Notch1-Delta-like (Notch1-DL) interactions in the thymus, resulting in transition to the DN2 (CD44 + CD25 + ) stage and culminating in the DN3 (CD44 − CD25 + ) stage, when T-lineage commitment occurs. (asm.org)
  • As a consequence, the cells that do not undergo β selection die, unless they have committed to the TCRγδ lineage. (asm.org)
  • mice
  • Consequently, mice that lack BCAP in T cells had reduced susceptibility to experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis. (rupress.org)
  • Corneal and conjunctival explants from dry eye or control mice were cocultured with DCs for 24 hours before CD4 + T cells were added for an additional 4 to 7 days. (arvojournals.org)
  • aberrant
  • Aberrant activation of hedgehog (HH) pathway has been implicated in the development of human malignancies. (oup.com)
  • fate
  • The processes underlying cell fate decisions are complex and often include large cell-to-cell variations, even within a clonal population in the same environment. (riken.jp)
  • differentiate
  • They trans-differentiate from differentiated cells at sites where enhanced rates of nutrient transport occur across apo-/symplasmic boundaries. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Placed into culture, adaxial epidermal cells of Vicia narbonensis cotyledons were induced to trans-differentiate to a TC morphology. (biomedsearch.com)
  • However, instead of becoming B cells, HEB −/− DN3 cells adopted a DN1-like phenotype and could be induced to differentiate into thymic NK cells. (asm.org)