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  • Enzymes
  • This pathway can activate enzymes and regulate gene expression . (wikipedia.org)
  • Spiral pathway s use the same enzymes to increase or decrease the size of a molecule. (everything2.com)
  • Deficiencies of one or more enzymes on the kynurenine pathway leads to an accumulation of intermediate metabolic products which can cause effects depending on their concentration, function and their inter-relation with other metabolic products. (wikipedia.org)
  • The mechanism behind this observation is typically a blockade or bottleneck situation at one or more enzymes on the kynurenine pathway due to the effects of Indolamine-2,3-Dioxygenase (IDO) and Tryptophan-2,3-Dioxygenase (TDO) and/or due to genetic polymorphisms afflicting the particular genes. (wikipedia.org)
  • The two pathways are also similar in their phases of branch migration, in which the Holliday junction slides in one direction, and resolution, in which the Holliday junctions are cleaved apart by enzymes. (wikipedia.org)
  • regulates
  • Notch pathway maintains stem cell populations and regulates binary cell fate choice. (news-medical.net)
  • JUPITER, FL -- January 25, 2011 -- Embargoed by the journal Nature until January 30, 1 PM Eastern time -- Scientists from the Florida campus of The Scripps Research Institute have identified a pathway in the brain that regulates an individual's v. (scienceblog.com)
  • Depletion
  • Depletion of dopamine in this pathway, or lesions at its site of origin, decrease the extent to which an animal is willing to go to obtain a reward (e.g., the number of lever presses for nicotine or time searching for food). (wikipedia.org)
  • synthase
  • This is in contrast to the direct sulfurylation pathways for the synthesis of cysteine or homocysteine via the replacement of the acetyl/succinyl group with free sulfide (via the cysK or cysM -encoded cysteine synthase and the metZ or metY -encoded homocysteine synthase, respectively). (wikipedia.org)
  • coli
  • Jan Weber, Anke Kayser, and Ursula Rinas, performed an experiment to test what happened to the methylglyoxal pathway when E. coli was in the presence of a constantly high concentration of glucose. (wikipedia.org)
  • methionine
  • Humans are auxotrophic for methionine, hence it is called an "essential amino acid" by nutritionists, but are not for cysteine due to the reverse trans-sulfurylation pathway. (wikipedia.org)
  • enzyme
  • In a cAMP-dependent pathway, the activated G s alpha subunit binds to and activates an enzyme called adenylyl cyclase , which, in turn, catalyzes the conversion of ATP into cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP). (wikipedia.org)
  • The enzyme-catalyzed condensation of 1-deoxy-1-imino-D-erythrose 4-phosphate with phosphoenolpyruvate to form 4-amino-3,4-dideoxy-d-arabino-heptulosonic acid 7-phosphate has been proposed to be the first committed step in the aminoshikimate pathway. (wikipedia.org)
  • The usual pathway converting GAP to pyruvate starts with the enzyme glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase (Weber 711-13). (wikipedia.org)
  • The RecA protein can be loaded onto the SSBP-coated 3' overhang in one of two distinct pathways, one that requires the RecFOR enzyme or one that requires the RecOR enzyme. (wikipedia.org)
  • ceases
  • Basically, the pathway loops back on itself over and over again until the very large or very small target molecule is finally reached, whereupon the pathway ceases. (everything2.com)
  • serotonin
  • Serotonin pathways are thought to modulate eating, both the amount as well as the motor processes associated with eating. (wikipedia.org)
  • Serotonin pathways projecting into the limbic forebrain are also involved in emotional processing, with decreased serotonergic activity resulting in decreased cognition and an emotional bias towards negative stimuli. (wikipedia.org)
  • Diseases
  • In addition to atopic dermatitis, there are also a number of genetic and congenital diseases, most presenting in childhood, that have prominent allergic manifestations, including dermatitis, or affect atopic pathways. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • Misregulation or loss of Notch signalling pathway is associated with several human disorders, including developmental syndromes, adult onset diseases, and cancer. (news-medical.net)
  • Pathway Genomics' testing services cover a variety of conditions including somatic & hereditary cancer risk, cardiac health, inherited diseases, nutrition and exercise response, as well as drug response. (wikipedia.org)
  • medulla
  • [ citation needed ] Note that the "old" name was primarily descriptive, evoking the pyramids of antiquity, from the appearance of this neural pathway in the medulla oblongata . (wikipedia.org)
  • Pain signals can set off autonomic nervous system pathways as they pass through the medulla, causing increased heart rate and blood pressure, rapid breathing and sweating. (howstuffworks.com)
  • As the ascending pain pathways travel through the spinal cord and medulla, they can also be set off by neuropathic pain -- damage to peripheral nerves, spinal cord or the brain itself. (howstuffworks.com)
  • binds
  • The pathway is triggered when the C3b protein directly binds a microbe . (wikipedia.org)
  • The RecF pathway begins when RecJ, an exonuclease that cleaves single-stranded DNA in the 5 → 3′ direction, binds to the 5' end of a single-strand gap in DNA and starts moving upstream while cleaving the 5' strand. (wikipedia.org)
  • In the RecFOR pathway, the RecFR complex binds where the single-strand DNA of the 3' meets the double-strand DNA. (wikipedia.org)
  • clinical
  • Pathway Genomics owns and operates a clinical laboratory accredited by the College of American Pathologists (CAP) and Clinical Laboratory Improvement Amendments (CLIA) which "provides physicians and their patients with actionable and accurate precision healthcare information to improve or maintain, health and wellness in more than 40 different countries. (wikipedia.org)
  • Clinical pathways aim to promote organised and efficient patient care based on evidence-based medicine, and aim to optimise outcomes in settings such as acute care and home care. (wikipedia.org)
  • A single clinical pathway may refer to multiple clinical guidelines on several topics in a well specified context. (wikipedia.org)
  • A clinical pathway is a multidisciplinary management tool based on evidence-based practice for a specific group of patients with a predictable clinical course, in which the different tasks (interventions) by the professionals involved in the patient care are defined, optimized and sequenced either by hour (ED), day (acute care) or visit (homecare). (wikipedia.org)
  • The concept of clinical pathways may have different meanings to different stakeholders. (wikipedia.org)
  • Managed care organizations often view clinical pathways in a similar way as they view care plans, in which the care provided to a patient is definitive and deliberate. (wikipedia.org)
  • Clinical pathways can range in scope from simple medication utilization to a comprehensive treatment plan. (wikipedia.org)
  • Clinical pathways aim for greater standardization of treatment regimens and sequencing as well as improved outcomes, from both a quality of life and a clinical outcomes perspective. (wikipedia.org)
  • The clinical pathway concept appeared for the first time at the New England Medical Center (Boston, United States) in 1985, inspired by Karen Zander and Kathleen Bower. (wikipedia.org)
  • non-primary source needed] Clinical pathways appeared as a result of the adaptation of the documents used in industrial quality management, the standard operating procedures (SOPs), whose goals are: Improve efficiency in the use of resources. (wikipedia.org)
  • Clinical pathways (integrated care pathways) can be seen as an application of process management thinking to the improvement of patient healthcare. (wikipedia.org)
  • the patient's journey is an individual one, and an important part of the purpose of the pathway documents is to capture information on "variances", where due to circumstances or clinical judgment different actions have been taken, or different results unfolded. (wikipedia.org)
  • What is a clinical pathway? (wikipedia.org)
  • genes
  • After traveling to the nucleus, the Notch receptor interacts with CSL which directs the transcription of downstream genes in the canonical Notch signalling pathway. (news-medical.net)
  • cortex
  • additional pathways within the brain connect to the visual cortex . (wikipedia.org)
  • Descending motor pathways of the pyramidal tracts travel from the cerebral cortex to the brainstem or lower spinal cord . (wikipedia.org)
  • Ascending sensory tracts in the dorsal column-medial lemniscus pathway carry information from the periphery to the cortex of the brain. (wikipedia.org)
  • [ citation needed ] This naming can extend to include any number of structures in a pathway, such that the cerebellorubrothalamocortical pathway originates in the cerebellum , synapses in the red nucleus ("ruber" in Latin), on to the thalamus , and finally terminating in the cerebral cortex . (wikipedia.org)
  • These descending pathways originate in the somatosensory cortex (which relays to the thalamus) and the hypothalamus . (howstuffworks.com)
  • The extent of these reactions depends upon the intensity of pain, and they can be depressed by brain centers in the cortex through various descending pathways. (howstuffworks.com)
  • influences
  • The influences of the descending pathways might also be responsible for psychogenic pain (pain perception with no obvious physical cause). (howstuffworks.com)
  • It influences regions of the brainstem through the central nucleus via the amygdalofugal pathway and the stria terminalis. (wikipedia.org)
  • Molecules
  • Catabolic pathways, which break down larger molecules into small molecules and energy. (everything2.com)
  • The methylglyoxal pathway is activated by the increased intercellular uptake of carbon containing molecules such as glucose, glucose-6-phosphate, lactate, or glycerol. (wikipedia.org)
  • distinct
  • Dysfunctional states of distinct steps of the kynurenine pathway (e.g. kynurenine, kynurenic acid, quinolinic acid, anthranilic acid, 3 -Hydroxykynurenine) have been described for a number of disorders, e.g. (wikipedia.org)
  • RecFOR and RecOR as distinct RecA loading pathways" (PDF). (wikipedia.org)
  • darker
  • [ citation needed ] If most or all of the axons lack myelin sheaths (i.e., are unmyelinated ), then the pathway will appear a darker beige color, which is generally called grey . (wikipedia.org)
  • proteins
  • This convertase, the alternative pathway C3-convertase, although only produced in small amounts, can cleave multiple C3 proteins into C3a and C3b. (wikipedia.org)
  • Communication pathways within proteins may yield new drug targets to stop. (scienceblog.com)
  • INDIANAPOLIS -- A School of Science at Indiana University-Purdue University Indianapolis biophysicist has developed a new method to identify communication pathways connecting distant regions within proteins. (scienceblog.com)
  • protein
  • In the field of molecular biology , the cAMP-dependent pathway , also known as the adenylyl cyclase pathway , is a G protein-coupled receptor -triggered signaling cascade used in cell communication . (wikipedia.org)
  • Specificity of signaling between a GPCR and its ultimate molecular target through a cAMP-dependent pathway may be achieved through formation of a multiprotein complex that includes the GPCR, adenylyl cyclase, and the effector protein. (wikipedia.org)
  • In protein-protein interaction networks, it is often the same as the signaling pathways. (springer.com)
  • typically
  • Consistent with CQI philosophy, pathway development teams must have input from all process stakeholders, so they typically include representatives of the patient population and a variety of caregivers. (asha.org)
  • The RecOR pathway also does not need a ssDNA-dsDNA junction to begin loading RecA onto the 3' overhang, whereas the RecFOR pathway typically does to work efficiently. (wikipedia.org)
  • axons
  • [ citation needed ] If the axons have myelin sheaths, then the pathway appears bright white because myelin is primarily lipid . (wikipedia.org)
  • nuclei
  • Mossy fibers project directly to the deep nuclei , but also give rise to the following pathway: mossy fibers → granule cells → parallel fibers → Purkinje cells → deep nuclei. (wikipedia.org)
  • brain
  • The first named pathways are evident to the naked eye even in a poorly preserved brain , and were named by the great anatomists of the Renaissance using cadaver material. (wikipedia.org)
  • DALLAS -- March 1, 2011 -- Researchers at UT Southwestern Medical Center have identified a signaling pathway in the brain that's sufficient to induce cellular leptin resistance, a problem that decreases the body's ability to "hear" that it is full. (scienceblog.com)
  • It is one of the four major dopamine pathways in the brain, and is particularly involved in the production of movement, as part of a system called the basal ganglia motor loop. (wikipedia.org)
  • It is one of the four major dopamine pathways in the brain, and is particularly involved in modulation of the extrapyramidal system. (wikipedia.org)
  • cognitive
  • In 2014, IBM Watson Group announced its partnership with Pathway Genomics, to help "deliver the first-ever cognitive consumer-facing app based on genetics from a user's personal makeup. (wikipedia.org)
  • practice
  • The pathway design tries to capture the foreseeable actions which will most commonly represent best practice for most patients most of the time, and include prompts for them at the appropriate time in the pathway document to ascertain whether they have been carried out, and whether results have been as expected. (wikipedia.org)
  • formation
  • Both pathways result in the production of factor X. The activation of this factor marks the beginning of the so-called common pathway of coagulation, which results in the formation of a clot. (britannica.com)
  • Mechanism
  • The reverse pathway is present in several organisms, including humans, and involves the transfer of the thiol group from homocysteine to cysteine via a similar mechanism. (wikipedia.org)