Loading...
  • maturation
  • The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of different concentrations of royal jelly (RJ) on in vitro maturation (IVM), fertilization, cleavage, blastocyst rates, glutathione (GSH) content in ovine oocyte, mRNA abundance of antioxidant enzymes in both oocyte and cumulus, and glucose metabolism-related genes in cumulus cells. (blogspot.com)
  • In cumulus cells, the expression of PFKM, PFKL, and G6PDH were increased following the addition of RJ to the maturation media. (blogspot.com)
  • The CAT mRNA abundance was not influenced by the addition of RJ to the maturation media in either oocyte or cumulus cells. (blogspot.com)
  • It seems that the improvement of oocyte maturation and its subsequent development in RJ10 group may be associated with amelioration of redox status in the oocytes and activation of glucose metabolic pathways in their surrounding cumulus cells. (blogspot.com)
  • The effect was found to be highly dependent on the dose of the PCI treatment, where optimal doses promoted maturation of immature dendritic cells, thus also providing an adjuvant effect. (frontiersin.org)
  • Origin, maturation and antigen presenting function of dendritic cells Cella Marina et al. (naver.com)
  • We propose a 2D-multiscale computational model to study the maturation of CD8 T-cells in a lymph node controlled by their molecular profile. (mdpi.com)
  • The final differentiation or maturation of dendritic cells (DCs) in response to environmental stimuli influences their ability to both initiate immunity and determine the quality of the response to antigens. (pnas.org)
  • Recent studies have also shown an important maturation role for FcγR expression on mouse antigen-presenting cells, including DCs ( 13 ). (pnas.org)
  • Therefore, the targeting of antigens to DCs by means of immune complexes can mediate both maturation of DCs and antigen presentation, leading to immunity that includes cross-presentation of tumors and autoantigens to CD8 + T cells ( 17 , 19 - 23 ). (pnas.org)
  • subsets
  • Allergy is an immunological disorder, which is driven by uncontrolled allergen-activated T cell subsets, leading to immediate type hypersensitivity against otherwise harmless environmental allergens. (eurekaselect.com)
  • With effector functions distinct from other T cell subsets, Th17 cells have been centrally implicated in inflammatory autoimmunity. (jove.com)
  • Th17 cells are a distinct subset of T cells that have been found to produce interleukin 17 (IL-17), and differ in function from the other T cell subsets including Th1, Th2, and regulatory T cells. (jove.com)
  • In this brief review, we summarize the current knowledge on the antigen-presenting capacity of granulocyte subsets (neutrophils, eosinophils, and basophils). (frontiersin.org)
  • Every 15 minutes, they fixed subsets of the cells and imaged them using electron microscopy, to follow the transferrin or the receptor as it made its way from the cell surface into the cell via the endocytic pathway, and traveled through different cellular compartments to MVE. (the-scientist.com)
  • Upcoming treatment paradigms aim to include several primary DC subsets in a single vaccine as pre-clinical studies identified synergistic effects between various antigen-presenting cells. (frontiersin.org)
  • Several divergent and often competing programmes of CD4 + T cell differentiation are now well recognized, leading to the development of distinct functional subsets, including T helper (Th) 1, 2, or 17 cells, follicular helper (Tfh) cells, and regulatory T (Treg) cells ( 1 - 5 ). (frontiersin.org)
  • The relative balance of CD4 + T cell differentiation to one or more of these functional subsets largely depends on a multitude of T cell-extrinsic factors, with the cytokine milieu naïve T cells encounter during the priming phase playing a major role ( 1 - 5 ). (frontiersin.org)
  • However, CD4 + T cell differentiation can also be shaped by T cell-intrinsic properties, such as the relative affinity of the T cell receptor (TCR), favoring development of particular subsets ( 6 - 8 ). (frontiersin.org)
  • Previous attempts to stimulate and expand these cells have therefore focused on stimulation using ligands of the Vγ9Vδ2 receptor, whereas relatively little is known about variant blood γδT subsets and their potential role in cancer immunotherapy. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Many different Treg subsets have been described, including CD8+ Treg cells, natural killer (NK) cells and several different CD4+ Treg cell subsets. (ersjournals.com)
  • In this review, the authors will focus on two major and well-described CD4+ Treg cell subsets. (ersjournals.com)
  • Major characteristics of subsets of CD4+ T-regulatory (Treg) cells based on cell-surface markers, immunosuppressive cytokine secretion and suppressive action. (ersjournals.com)
  • viruses
  • Antitumor virotherapy is a developing approach to treat cancer with oncolytic viruses, namely replicative viruses that exclusively or preferentially infect and kill tumor cells. (omicsonline.org)
  • The efficacy of oncolytic viruses is mainly due to their capacity to infect and kill tumor cells, but it has also been demonstrated that their capacity to induce immunogenic cell death can activate an antitumor immune response. (omicsonline.org)
  • Antitumor virotherapy using replicative oncolytic viruses that exclusively or preferentially infect and kill tumor cells is a field that is growing rapidly, along with progress in molecular biological engineering [ 1 ]. (omicsonline.org)
  • These viruses are often derived from attenuated strains that either exhibit a natural tropism against tumor cells or that have been engineered to target tumor cells. (omicsonline.org)
  • Several well-defined factors have been demonstrated to influence the balance of Th1 and Tfh cells in response to viruses, as well as other challenges. (frontiersin.org)
  • They quickly recognise threats to your body, for example bacteria, viruses and parasites, which are often called pathogens . (wordpress.com)
  • They can help tailor the response to specific types of pathogen like viruses, bacteria or parasites. (wordpress.com)
  • Researchers at the Centro Nacional de Investigaciones Cardiovasculares Carlos III (CNIC) have provided valuable information about the defense mechanisms of the immune system during the early stages of the response to pathogens such as viruses and bacteria. (medicalxpress.com)
  • bacteria
  • The number of bacteria associated with humans is estimated to be 10 14 per individual, which makes microorganisms ten times more numerous than the actual cells of the human body. (scielo.br)
  • Nevertheless, mice preimmunized with aro mutant bacteria elicited good T-cell response and full protection against a subsequent challenge with the virulent wild-type strain. (asm.org)
  • A total of 5 × 10 6 aroA , aroB , and aroA/B mutant bacteria were sufficient to obtain a protective T-cell response, while 5 × 10 8 aroE or aroA/E mutants were necessary to achieve comparable numbers of antigen-specific T cells. (asm.org)
  • After uptake into these cells, the bacteria escape into the cytosol by disrupting the phagosomal membrane by the action of the cytolysin listeriolysin (LLO) ( 40 ). (asm.org)
  • The results demonstrated that treatment of polarized Caco-2 cells with L. fructosus C2 reduced the permeation of dextran, and expression of IL-8, p-ERK, and p-JNK when cells were infected with pathogenic bacteria. (nih.gov)
  • Each type of T-cell is specially equipped to deal with different pathogens, which may be a bacteria, virus or toxin. (naturallivingcenter.net)
  • The natural ligands of Vγ9Vδ2 are phosphoantigen by-products of the non-mevalonate pathway of cholesterol biosynthesis produced in bacteria and some cancer cells. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Cytokines
  • Tick feeding promotes CD4 T cell polarization to a Th2 profile usually accompanied by down-regulation of Th1 cytokines through as yet undefined mechanisms. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The adaptive T-regulatory cells are further subdivided into T-regulatory cells type 1 and T-helper cell type 3 that mediate suppression exclusively via the cytokines interleukin-10 and transforming growth factor-β, respectively. (ersjournals.com)
  • complexes
  • In this Cell Science at a Glance poster article we will describe the mechanisms that lead to MHC class II trafficking to intracellular sites of foreign-antigen degradation, MHC class II binding to antigenic fragments, and the movement of MHC-class-II-antigen complexes to the surface of the APC. (biologists.org)
  • Circulating immune complexes and cell-bound immunoglobulins present in normal human sera represent a potential stimulus for inadvertent DC activation in the steady state and during autoimmunity. (pnas.org)
  • vesicles
  • They are formed inside the cell in compartments known as multivesicular endosomes (MVE), which take up bits of the cytoplasm and its contents into membrane-bound vesicles. (the-scientist.com)
  • But about 25 years ago, researchers described the opposite process-MVE in developing red blood cells fused with the plasma membrane and released their contents, including numerous small vesicles (later dubbed exosomes), outside the cell. (the-scientist.com)
  • Surprisingly, the micrographs showed that some of these MVE fused with the plasma membrane and released these small vesicles bearing transferrin and its receptor to the outside of the cell. (the-scientist.com)
  • Daniel Torralba et al, Priming of dendritic cells by DNA-containing extracellular vesicles from activated T cells through antigen-driven contacts, Nature Communications (2018). (medicalxpress.com)
  • assay
  • In addition, the efficacy of agents that interfere with antigen presentation process can also be evaluated by SIAT® antigen presentation assay. (creative-biolabs.com)
  • SIAT® antigen presentation assay service from Creative Biolabs is able to deliver this information about TCR epitopes through interpretation of what DCs naturally says. (creative-biolabs.com)
  • Below is a brief description of our workflow of SIAT® antigen presentation assay service. (creative-biolabs.com)
  • molecular patterns
  • Additional findings from this work suggest that the molecular characteristics mediating APC activation are not limited to hydrophobicity but vary in complexity (e.g., presentation of oxygen-rich molecular patterns to cells) and elicit unique patterns of cellular activation. (naver.com)
  • Apoptosis
  • Cell death can occur through 3 mechanisms: apoptosis, autophagy, and necrosis. (qiagen.com)
  • Apoptosis, or programmed cell death, results in controlled cell shrinkage and nuclear fragmentation via the action of. (qiagen.com)
  • stimuli
  • In response to external stimuli dendritic cells undergo a complete genetic reprogramming that allows them to become, soon after activation, natural killer cell activators and subsequently T cell stimulators. (jove.com)
  • epithelial
  • Histopathogical signs include leukocyte infiltration, pronounced epithelial hyperplasia, depletion of mucin secreting goblet cells and finally ulceration. (mdbiosciences.com)
  • aroA , aroB , and in particular aroE mutants showed strongly reduced growth rates in epithelial cells and even in rich culture media. (asm.org)
  • Bile ducts lined with biliary epithelial cells, or cholangiocytes, are the main components of the biliary system in liver. (springermedizin.de)
  • lymph
  • It has been shown that topical DermaPrep administration results in antigen expression in the lymph nodes by dendritic cells. (prnewswire.co.uk)
  • HIV-1 has been proposed to make use of this migratory process, being captured by DC and delivered to the lymph node where the virus is transmitted to CD4 + T cells. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Prokopiou SA, Barbarroux L, Bernard S, Mafille J, Leverrier Y, Arpin C, Marvel J, Gandrillon O, Crauste F. Multiscale Modeling of the Early CD8 T-Cell Immune Response in Lymph Nodes: An Integrative Study. (mdpi.com)
  • granulocytes
  • So called because they have granules inside them (little packets of chemicals which actually make the cells look grainy under a microscope), granulocytes come in different types. (wordpress.com)