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  • bacterial pathogens
  • Since lipopolysaccharide (LPS), a glycolipid of bacterial pathogens, also alters proteasome subunit composition of the 20S proteasome and its activator PA700, a function of microglial proteasome in processing of antigens of the endolysosomal pathway has been postulated. (hu-berlin.de)
  • receptor
  • DCs takes up pathogens through receptor mediated endocytosis and degrade it in a lysosome (DeFranco et al, 2007). (ukessays.com)
  • The overwhelming part of such an antimicrobial immune response is coordinated and initiated by CD4 + T helper (Th) cells, which recognize foreign antigens through their T cell receptor after presentation by antigen-presenting cells. (frontiersin.org)
  • A huge Th cell receptor repertoire ensures that almost all pathogens can be recognized and subsequently be eliminated. (frontiersin.org)
  • However, this virtually exhaustless T cell receptor repertoire obviously bears the risk of containing autoaggressive T cells ( 1 ). (frontiersin.org)
  • Concerning the suppressive mechanism(s), the usage of cytokine-deficient and cytokine receptor-deficient mice could exclude that IL-10 and TGF-β - at least in vitro - mediated the suppressive properties of Treg cells ( 7 , 8 ). (frontiersin.org)
  • Engagement between the MHC-peptide complex and T cell receptor provides signal 1 . (frontiersin.org)
  • Comprehensive quantitation of variables known to influence Tfh differentiation revealed the closest correlation with the strength of T cell receptor (TCR) signaling, leading to PD-1 expression, but not with surface TCR downregulation, irrespective of TCR clonotypic avidity. (frontiersin.org)
  • However, CD4 + T cell differentiation can also be shaped by T cell-intrinsic properties, such as the relative affinity of the T cell receptor (TCR), favoring development of particular subsets ( 6 - 8 ). (frontiersin.org)
  • Engagement of the activating NKG2D receptor is one of the most direct mechanisms involved in the recognition of stressed cells by the immune system. (readbyqxmd.com)
  • A diverse immune receptor repertoire will give offspring better chances at fighting pathogens. (wordpress.com)
  • The activated T cells, carrying a T cell receptor matching the antigen presented by the cell, then kills the cell. (wordpress.com)
  • HLA-DP, -DQ and -DR form the cell surface receptor for MHC class II molecules, while HLA-DM and -DOB help process and load the antigens onto the receptor. (wordpress.com)
  • Active apoptosis, or activation-induced cell death (AICD), is mediated by certain members of the TNF receptor (TNF-R) superfamily, including CD95 (Fas/APO-1) and TNF-R1 ( 9 , 10 ). (rupress.org)
  • Using this approach, we show that CD141 + DCs are the only cells in human blood that express the chemokine receptor XCR1 and respond to the specific ligand XCL1 by Ca 2+ mobilization and potent chemotaxis. (rupress.org)
  • The fidelity, occasional promiscuity, and versatility of T cell receptor recognition. (semanticscholar.org)
  • viruses
  • All these functions make DCs key elements in the immunological response against pathogens, viruses and tumors. (units.it)
  • Several well-defined factors have been demonstrated to influence the balance of Th1 and Tfh cells in response to viruses, as well as other challenges. (frontiersin.org)
  • Infection induces DC maturation and presentation of virus-associated antigens, explaining the interest in using these viruses as therapeutic vectors of tumor-associated antigens. (asm.org)
  • Human herpesvirus 8 (HHV-8) is one of the few human viruses that primarily targets these APC for infection, altering their cytokine profiles, manipulating their surface expression of MHC molecules, and altering their ability to activate HHV-8-specific T cells. (frontiersin.org)
  • Not surprisingly, along with their CTL evasion mechanisms, many viruses have also evolved strategies for coping with 'missing-self' attack by NK cells. (elifesciences.org)
  • potent
  • One of the important candidates is cyclic AMP (cAMP), which is long known as a potent suppressor at least of T cell activation and function. (frontiersin.org)
  • Mouse CD1.1 is an MHC class I-like, non-MHC-encoded, surface glycoprotein that can be recognized by T cells, in particular NK1.1 + T cells, a subset of αβ T cells with semiinvariant TCRs that promptly releases potent cytokines such as IL-4 and IFN-γ upon stimulation. (jimmunol.org)
  • Further, TcG2/TcG4 -vaccinated mice exhibited potent expansion of poly-functional CD8 + T cells with TNF-α/IFN-γ production and cytolytic phenotype post-infection. (frontiersin.org)
  • Chen X, Murakami T, Oppenheim JJ, Howard OM: Triptolide, a constituent of immunosuppressive Chinese herbal medicine, is a potent suppressor of dendritic-cell maturation and trafficking. (exbio.cz)
  • Antibodies
  • Summary The production of antibodies against pathogens is an effective mechanism of protection against a wide range of infections. (europa.eu)
  • We propose to test this hypothesis by (1) determining the magnitude and timing of the forces generated by B cells, and (2) determining the role of the mechanical properties of BCR-antigen bonds in affinity maturation and (3) in the development of broadly neutralising antibodies. (europa.eu)
  • maturation
  • The effect was found to be highly dependent on the dose of the PCI treatment, where optimal doses promoted maturation of immature dendritic cells, thus also providing an adjuvant effect. (frontiersin.org)
  • As a result, the response and the affinity maturation of individual B cell clones are difficult to predict, posing a problem for the design of next-generation vaccines. (europa.eu)
  • Immature DCs cocultured with PDT-treated C-26 cells efficiently engulfed killed tumor cells, acquired functional features of maturation, and produced substantial amounts of IL-12. (aacrjournals.org)
  • malaria
  • Several inherited variants in red blood cells have become common in parts of the world where malaria is frequent as a result of selection exerted by this parasite . (wikipedia.org)
  • Using TCR transgenic cells specific for the malaria circumsporozoite protein, a leading vaccine candidate, we found that sporozoite antigen persists for over 8 weeks after immunization-a remarkable finding since irradiated sporozoites are incapable of replication and do not differentiate beyond early liver stages. (prolekare.cz)
  • Although highly risky, they attempted to replicate the same conditions artificially by applying a septic dressing to the wound or injecting patients with pathogens such as malaria. (amsj.org)
  • antibody
  • Although it is known that T cell help controls B cell expansion and differentiation into antibody-secreting and memory B cells, how the strength of antigen binding to the BCR regulates antigen internalisation remains poorly understood. (europa.eu)
  • The antibody HI149 reacts with CD1a (T6), a 49 kDa polypeptide associated with beta2-microglobulin expressed on cortical thymocytes (strongly), Langerhans cells, dendritic cells and some T cell leukemias and lymphomas. (exbio.cz)
  • viral infection
  • The role of plasmacytoid dendritic cells (PDC), the major producers of alpha interferon upon viral infection, in the nasal mucosa is largely unknown. (asm.org)
  • With the identification of PDC, the major target cell for CpG DNA or immunostimulatory RNA, in the nasal epithelium, this study forms the basis for a local nasal application of such oligonucleotides for the treatment of viral infection and allergy. (asm.org)
  • immunological
  • We have previously shown that in DCs engaged in antigen specific immunological synapses (IS), IL-12 is found enriched in the proximity of the contact site between DC and T cells, and several evidences suggest that its secretion is polarized towards the T cell. (units.it)
  • Since the early beginnings, in the 1950s, hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) has become an established curative treatment for an increasing number of patients with life-threatening hematological, oncological, hereditary, and immunological diseases. (frontiersin.org)
  • Human leukocyte antigen (HLA) molecules play a vital role in the immunological T cell response. (frontiersin.org)
  • defense
  • Granulocytes, the most abundant types of leukocytes, are the first line of defense against pathogen invasion. (frontiersin.org)
  • As key components in the innate immune system, granulocytes have generally been considered as rapid responders in the first line of defense against pathogens. (frontiersin.org)
  • Streptococcus
  • They had earlier experimented with erysipleas, injecting or physically applying the causative pathogen, Streptococcus pyogenes, onto the tumour site. (amsj.org)
  • vaccine
  • A Hib conjugate vaccine has been constructed via chemical synthesis of a Hib saccharide antigen. (hindawi.com)
  • Additionally the invention relates to a pharmaceutical composition comprising the inventive vaccine/inhibitor combination to further improve the immune response against tumour cells and infected cells having lost the capability of MHC class I restricted antigen presentation. (patentsencyclopedia.com)
  • 6. Vaccine/inhibitor combination according to claim 1, wherein the vaccine is a nucleic acid coding for at least one antigen. (patentsencyclopedia.com)
  • myeloid
  • Therefore, we propose that the pathology of APOL variants is due to their deregulated activity on the control of the cellular lifespan in myeloid/endothelial cells activated by pathogen detection. (europa.eu)
  • Many markers and functions of myeloid cells, such as expression of MHC class II, CD11c, CD11b, and antigen presentation, are shared among different myeloid cell types such that the classification and identification of myeloid cell remains an evolving subject in the scientific community. (miltenyibiotec.com)
  • Here we examined the presence of PDC together with myeloid dendritic cells (MDC) in the nasal epithelia of healthy individuals, of asymptomatic patients with chronic nasal allergy, of patients undergoing steroid therapy, and of patients with infectious rhinitis or rhinosinusitis. (asm.org)
  • tumors
  • Inoculation of immature DCs into the PDT-treated tumors resulted in effective homing to regional and peripheral lymph nodes and stimulation of cytotoxic activity of T and natural killer cells. (aacrjournals.org)
  • activation
  • One of the most important cytokines in T cell priming, interleukine-12 (IL-12), begins to be largely transcribed immediately after TLR activation. (units.it)
  • The so-called "three-signal model" ( 4 ) is usually used to define the APC function required for the activation of T cells. (frontiersin.org)
  • My aim is to develop an understanding of the cellular mechanisms that underlie critical B cell activation steps. (europa.eu)
  • This process, termed cross-tolerance, is preceded by the activation and limited proliferation of autoreactive CD8 T cells ( 5 , 6 ). (rupress.org)
  • endothelial
  • The review summarizes the state-of-the-art knowledge on the key steps of the complex interactions between the endothelial wall, pathogens, and the immune system that lead to the opening of junctions and/or destruction of the wall, enhancing pathology. (jove.com)