• Physicists working on an experiment dubbed OPERA run jointly by the CERN particle research center near Geneva and the Gran Sasso Laboratory in central Italy found the particles by firing a total of 15,000 beams of neutrinos -- tiny particles that pervade the cosmos -- over three years from CERN toward Gran Sasso, 730 km (500 miles) away, where they were picked up by giant detectors. (ibtimes.com)
  • Neutrinos are some of the most common particles in the universe-and some of the weirdest. (scientificamerican.com)
  • The theories we've been using so far all require those extra particles (muons, gluons, neutrinos, every particle has an anti-particle, and so on) in order to be consistent and describe experiments already done. (physicsforums.com)
  • Buried under the Antarctic ice, the IceCube experiment was designed primarily to capture particles called neutrinos that are produced by powerful cosmic events , but it is also helping scientists learn about the fundamental nature of these ghostly particles. (livescience.com)
  • Neutrinos are fundamental particles of nature. (livescience.com)
  • Neutrinos very, very rarely interact with regular matter, so they don't really influence human beings at all (unless, of course, you happen to be a particle physicist who studies them). (livescience.com)
  • The sun generates neutrinos in droves, but for the most part, those particles pour through the Earth, like phantoms. (livescience.com)
  • The ice provides a shield from other types of radiation and particles that would otherwise overwhelm the rare instances when neutrinos do interact with the detector and create a signal for scientists to study. (livescience.com)
  • For a long time, scientists debated whether neutrinos had mass or if they were similar to photons (particles of light), which are considered massless. (livescience.com)
  • To better understand why the equal number of muon and tau neutrinos in the mass species implies nonrandomness, DeYoung gave the example of scientists discovering that protons and neutrons (the two particles that make up the nucleus of an atom ) have very similar masses. (livescience.com)
  • But physicists predicted in the 1930s that a very strong electric field would transform virtual particles into real ones that we can observe. (newscientist.com)
  • For the first time ever, physicists have mapped the path that particles are most likely to take when moving from one quantum state to another. (yahoo.com)
  • Experimental physicists in Innsbruck, Austria, have now directly observed quantum particles transmitting through a whole series of up to five potential barriers under conditions where a single particle could not do the move. (uibk.ac.at)
  • It is now one of the crucial points in the experiment that the physicists control through how many barriers the particles penetrate by the interplay between the interaction and the strength of the force in conjunction with Bose enhancement as a result of the particles' quantum indistinguishability. (uibk.ac.at)
  • As a result, the physicists found that the tunneling motion leads to discrete resonances corresponding to the number of barriers the particles penetrate through. (uibk.ac.at)
  • AUSTIN, Texas Physicists at The University of Texas at Austin have built a tabletop particle accelerator that can generate energies and speeds previously reached only by major facilities that are hundreds of meters long and cost hundreds of millions of dollars to build. (freerepublic.com)
  • But judging by the reception given to two screenings in Sheffield of Particle Fever, a brilliant documentary about the teams who conceived, designed and built the Large Hadron Collider near Geneva, particle physicists just may be the new rock stars. (telegraph.co.uk)
  • The boson has been called the "capstone" of Albert Einstein's universe of elementary particles and three fundamental forces that control the cosmos under the "Standard Model" finalised by physicists in the 1970s. (news24.com)
  • Called the Higgs boson, the theoretical particle has been long sought by physicists who think it's responsible for all mass in the universe -hence the name God particle. (nationalgeographic.com)
  • The characters of Particle Fever come from two disparate camps: theoretical and experimental physicists. (popularmechanics.com)
  • Particles formed from nucleation also coagulate to form relatively larger aggregate particles or droplets with diameters between 0.1 and 1.0 µ m, and such particles normally do not grow into the coarse mode. (encyclopedia.com)
  • During that initial splash some droplets (charged particles) break off, get caught up in the wave and accelerate by surfing on it. (freerepublic.com)
  • The aqueous droplets are gelled, e.g. by ammonia or an amine, recovered, and heated at 250°-2000° C. The resulting particles are generally smooth spheres below 100 microns in diameter and often of sub-micron size. (freepatentsonline.com)
  • Instead, random fluctuations give birth to a seething cauldron of particles, such as electrons, and their antimatter counterparts, called positrons. (newscientist.com)
  • The ability to generate large numbers of positrons could be useful for particle colliders like the proposed International Linear Collider , which will smash electrons and positrons together, says Kirk McDonald of Princeton University in New Jersey. (newscientist.com)
  • Another thing is called the Lamb Shift, and this is when the wibbly wobbly electromagnetic field or the virtual particles interact again with electrons in say a hydrogen atom. (universetoday.com)
  • Elusive dark matter particles could be spotted when they slam into electrons or atomic nuclei within diamond, scientists say. (sciencenews.org)
  • However, as free particles, only protons and electrons are stable. (answers.com)
  • Electrons are the negatively charged particles of an atom and are necessary in mai. (reference.com)
  • A big question: as the charismatic physicist David Kaplan, one of Particle Fever's producers, who appears throughout the film, explains: "An entire field (of science) hinges on a single event. (telegraph.co.uk)
  • A physicist in the College of Arts and Sciences is the lead contributor to the discovery of two never-before-seen baryonic particles. (innovations-report.com)
  • Particle Fever is directed by Mark Levinson, a physicist turned filmmaker, and is masterfully edited by Walter Murch ( Apocalypse Now , The English Patient , The Godfather trilogy), which probably does well to explain the film's skillful chronicling of both a colossal scientific breakthrough and the Hollywood-style hero narratives of the six scientists behind it. (timeout.com)
  • Because of their extremely small size, the study of microscopic and subatomic particles fall in the realm of quantum mechanics . (wikipedia.org)
  • Size-selective sampler inlets for inhalable, thoracic, and respirable dust prevent the oversized particles from reaching the sampling filters used to determine the mass concentrations of the overall sample or specific chemical constituents within the sample. (encyclopedia.com)
  • This particular size discrimination was a recognition that fine and coarse particles generally have distinct sources and formation mechanisms. (encyclopedia.com)
  • 9. Carrier particles of claim 1, wherein said particles have a size of about 5 to about 16 micrometers in diameter. (google.de)
  • The development of ever smaller magnetic structures is restricted by a size limit, where the particles are just barely magnetic. (pnas.org)
  • Different specialists describe the particles based on shape, size, and chemical composition. (nasa.gov)
  • Hi all, Im wondering how can I convert the velocity to speed, I need only the magnitud of the vector to control the size of some particles. (cgsociety.org)
  • Particles are spherical, with spike-like projections, and heterogeneous in size ranging from 40 to 100 nm in diameter. (pnas.org)
  • That's bad because the particles are just the size to be confused as food for small fish,' she said. (cbc.ca)
  • The topics included have been selected to give coverage of the broad areas of particle technology: particle size analysis packed and fluidized beds, storage and transport (hopper design, pneumatic conveying, standpipes, slurry flow), separation (filtration and gas cyclones), safety (fire and explosion hazards, health hazards). (aiche.org)
  • Dynamic light Scattering offers a quick and easy way of determining the effective diameter of iron oxide nanoparticles and an autotitrator can help automate the process of detecting changes in particle size as a function of pH. (genengnews.com)
  • In coatings and similar prcxiucts, the criteria for best performance of particulate ingredients-inorganic, organic, extender, and metallic flake pigments, and the dispersed phase of latexes-depends in large measure on the size and shape of the particles composing the particulate materials. (astm.org)
  • The importance of particle size measurement including the amount of coarse oversize particles is evident. (astm.org)
  • For the most part, research and design have focused on particle size and shape. (scientificamerican.com)
  • The new study focuses on a less well-researched particle size - the ultrafine particle - that measures less than 0.1 µm (PM0.1). (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • Particles of this size are small enough to enter the bloodstream, with the potential to damage a number of internal systems that may be inaccessible to larger particles. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • 3. The paramagnetic particle of claim 2 wherein the size of each said primary bead is less than 1 micron. (google.ca)
  • As reported in a paper published in the Journal of the American Chemical Society earlier this year, they discovered that rather than changing completely from one state to another at a certain temperature and size, as had been previously believed, there is a transition zone between states when particles are changing forms. (bnl.gov)
  • The morphology, particle size and distribution were investigated using a high-resolution electron microscope (TEM). (foresight.org)
  • On the other photographs a few larger particles with a media size 8*2 nm are noticed alongside with the basic particles. (foresight.org)
  • The SAXS studies evidenced particles regularly dispersed in the polymer matrix with narrow log-normal size bimodal distribution centered around 3,2*0,3 nm (more than 80% particles from total quantity) and 8 nm (*1 nm). (foresight.org)
  • This means that the size of the nano-particles is less than 10 nm. (foresight.org)
  • Mossbauer spectroscopy for Fe-containing samples makes it possible to determine and to control the "phase" constitution of the composites, and also to evaluate the size of the particles. (foresight.org)
  • Particle size measurement (2-10 nm) and magnetic properties showed that the material really contained the nanoparticles, which were retaining their unique properties. (foresight.org)
  • A fully editable particle effect generator, which allows you to add vibrant animation and life to your games through the alteration of shape, size and colour to your objects over time. (moddb.com)
  • Researchers from the town of Tomsk have invented and manufactured a device to produce a choice selection of particles - all particles are equal to the required size and inexpensive. (innovations-report.com)
  • The researchers determined how many times each particle is to collide with others to get broken into pieces and then to get ground through to the required size and shape, what should be the device parameters and the gas velocity to get the nanopowder with predetermined characteristics at the output. (innovations-report.com)
  • The results achieved are powders of silicon, silicium nitride and silicon carbide, of aluminium oxide, of tungsten carbide and of titanium, aluminium, copper and tungsten, their average particle size being 0.3 mcm (300 nanometers) and 0.5 mcm (500 nanometers). (innovations-report.com)
  • They contain practically no admixtures, and the particles are very similar in size. (innovations-report.com)
  • A technique, which is particularly advantageous in developing ceramic particles in the micrometer size or less, is disclosed in co-pending Canadian patent application Serial Number 544868-9, filed 19 Aug. 1987 of which one of the two inventors is also co-inventor of this application. (freepatentsonline.com)
  • The Electrical Aerosol Analyzer (EAA) has been used to measure the particle size-distribution of the exhaust aerosol produced by five diesel cars under a variety of steady-state operating conditions. (sae.org)
  • There was no consistent effect of speed on particle size in this group of cars, but there was a slight tendency toward larger particle sizes as the load increased. (sae.org)
  • The gold nanoparticles have a small particle size ranging from two to 100 nm and show no cytotoxicity. (news-medical.net)
  • We assess total particulate emissions and characterize particle size and number for traditional diesel and gasoline engines, GDI, hand-held engine technology, and alternative-fuel engines including natural gas, propane, and biofuels. (swri.org)
  • Particle size plays a key role in the manufacture and performance of these materials. (horiba.com)
  • In this webinar, Kiwan Park shares his micro view of the macro use of piezoceramics as it relates to powder particle size. (horiba.com)
  • In both experiments, they found that the least flexible particles got bumped out of circulation the fastest, while the springiest discs persisted much longer: in live mice, 30 times as long as the more rigid discs. (scientificamerican.com)
  • It's also one of the targets of experiments by the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) , which began smashing subatomic particles together at half its maximum power in March . (nationalgeographic.com)
  • Using a technique developed in DeSimone's lab, known as particle replication in nonwetting templates (PRINT), the hydrogel was pushed into moulds by a roller, creating discs just 6 micrometres in diameter. (scientificamerican.com)
  • Beckman Coulter Life Sciences has launched the next-generation laser diffraction particle analyzer, the LS 13 320 XR − to meet the exacting demands of quality control and research applications in pharmaceutical and industrial sectors. (news-medical.net)
  • By contrast, most of the coarse fraction particles are emitted directly as particles and result from mechanical disruption such as crushing, grinding, evaporation of sprays, or suspensions of dust from construction and agricultural operations. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Basically, most coarse particles are formed by breaking up bigger masses into smaller ones. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Energy considerations normally limit coarse particle sizes to greater than 1.0 µ m in diameter. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Some combustion-generated mineral particles, such as fly ash, are also found in the coarse fraction. (encyclopedia.com)
  • As a result of the fundamentally different chemical compositions and sources of fine and coarse fraction particles, the chemical composition of the sum of these two fractions, PM10, is more heterogeneous than either mode alone. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Fine accumulation - mode particles typically have longer atmospheric lifetimes (e.g., days to weeks) than coarse particles, and they tend to be more uniformly dispersed across an urban area or large geographic region, especially in the eastern United States . (encyclopedia.com)
  • And we know that photons, that light, can turn into particle, anti-particle pairs. (universetoday.com)
  • A positron, which is the anti-particle of the electron, for example, has the same mass as an electron and experiences the same attraction to all other matter (gravity) as an electron. (answers.com)
  • Scientists imagine one day injecting these particles into the bloodstream and watching them move toward and then glom onto cancer cells to deliver a drug that kills them. (knowablemagazine.org)
  • In a discovery that could question Einstein's longstanding fundamental laws of the universe, an international team of scientists announced Thursday that they had successfully recorded subatomic particles traveling at speeds higher than light. (ibtimes.com)
  • This makes studying quantum particles extremely difficult, because the moment scientists start probing around, the particles' quantum states collapse. (yahoo.com)
  • Through an analysis of 259 water bottles from 11 brands sold across nine countries, including the United States, scientists found 93 percent were contaminated with an average of 10.4 plastic particles per liter of water. (ajc.com)
  • Scientists had previously discovered tiny plastic particles in Lakes Superior, Huron and Erie but new small concentrations have also been uncovered in Lake Michigan and Lake Ontario. (cbc.ca)
  • Scientists discovered masses of floating plastic particles in Lakes Superior, Huron and Erie last year. (cbc.ca)
  • Scientists have found tiny plastic particles in all of the Great Lakes. (cbc.ca)
  • Though evidence is piling up increasingly on the lethal effects of particles, scientists are yet to fathom the extent of damage they can cause to public health. (org.in)
  • Today, scientists are perplexed by the discovery that even at very low concentrations these particles kill. (org.in)
  • Scientists had known all along that particles are harmful but scientific evidence on the enormity of their health effects is yet to be understood completely. (org.in)
  • But things changed dramatically when scientists began to observe incomprehensible but serious health effects even at extremely low concentrations of particles. (org.in)
  • As science on particles developed, scientists were faced with more questions than they had solutions for. (org.in)
  • By keeping particles in the same structural and dynamic state under the same reaction conditions, the micro-reactor will give scientists a much better sense of how they function. (bnl.gov)
  • A universal method of introduction of metall-containing nano-particles in polymeric matrices has been developed, which allows the fabrication of large amounts (kilogram-scale) of polymer nanoparticle composites. (foresight.org)
  • Fundamental particles possess properties such as electric charge , spin , mass , magnetism , and other complex characteristics, but are regarded as pointlike. (britannica.com)
  • That same positron is repelled by positively charged particles and attracted to negatively charged particles (electromagnetism). (answers.com)
  • this paper to the case where the potential (or force) at a point is a sum of pairwise An algorithm is presented for the rapid evaluation of the potential and force fields in systems involving large numbers of particles interactions. (psu.edu)
  • The claims of new discovery, if confirmed, have the potential to question Einstein's special theory of relativity, proposed in 1905, which says the speed of light is the same for all inertial observers regardless of the state of motion of the source and nothing (except hypothetical subatomic particles) can attain speeds higher than light. (ibtimes.com)
  • Under the special theory of relativity, a particle (that has mass) with subluminal velocity needs infinite energy to accelerate to the speed of light, although special relativity does not forbid the existence of particles that travel faster than light at all times, for instance tachyons. (ibtimes.com)
  • We talked about the mechanism, and mentioned how there are these virtual particles that pop in and out of existence. (universetoday.com)
  • We know that these virtual particles are always fizzing in and out of existence for a few reasons. (universetoday.com)
  • It is also known as the "God particle" because its existence is vitally important toward understanding the early evolution of the universe. (yahoo.com)
  • Carrier particles suitable for magnetic brush development comprising hard magnetic ferrite material having a single phase, W-type hexagonal crystalline structure represented by the formula MFe16 Me2 O27 where M is strontium or barium and Me is a divalent transition metal selected from the group consisting. (google.de)
  • The assembly of tiny magnetic particles in external magnetic fields is important for many applications ranging from data storage to medical technologies. (pnas.org)
  • This invention relates to magnetic particles and to the use thereof. (google.com)
  • Magnetically attractable particles comprise a core of magnetic material encapsulated in a metal oxide coating. (freepatentsonline.com)
  • 1. Water-dispersible magnetically attractable particles comprising a mass of finely divided super-paramagnetic material encapsulated in an inorganic oxide, the particles having the property of being readily brought out of dispersion by application of a magnetic field and of being readily redispersed after removal of the magnetic field. (freepatentsonline.com)
  • 4. Particles as claimed in claim 1, having a magnetic material content of 1 to 95% by weight. (freepatentsonline.com)
  • Be able to write-down the classical equation of motion for a charged particle in uniform magnetic and electric fields (non-radiative approximation), and solve for its motion in each case. (warwick.ac.uk)
  • Charged particles in electric and magnetic fields. (warwick.ac.uk)
  • It was clear to them that they needed to understand much more about the 'idiosyncrasies' of ultrafine particles and how they chemically and biologically affect human health systems. (org.in)
  • Higher levels of ultrafine particles, such as near dense road traffic, resulted in heart function changes after only 5 minutes. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • Lead author Prof. Annette Peters, head of the Epidemiology research program at the German Center for Diabetes Research (DZD), and colleagues investigated how ultrafine particles affected the heart in 64 patients diagnosed either with impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) or type 2 diabetes . (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • When they analyzed the results, the team found links between ultrafine particle levels and changes to heart rate variability - a feature of heart function that shows how the person's heart and circulation is adapting to current demands. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • Elevated concentrations of ultrafine particles, e.g. in dense road traffic, led to a change in heart rate variability of the participants after only 5 minutes. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • Top boffins at international science alliance CERN have decided to postpone a planned upgrade and keep the Large Hadron Collider - arse-kickingest particle-punisher and largest machine of any kind built by the human race - running at current power levels to the end of 2012. (theregister.co.uk)
  • Such polymer dispersions are prepared by in a first step preparing a dispersion of smaller monodisperse polymer particles containing one or more materials having. (google.de)
  • Such polymer dispersions are prepared by in a first step preparing a dispersion of smaller monodisperse polymer particles containing one or more materials having a very low solubility in water, and a relatively low molecular weight, then in a second step adding a partly water-soluble monomer which diffuses into the particles from the first step, and then effecting polymerization. (google.de)
  • It relates to monodisperse polymer particles, dispersions thereof and a process for preparing such particles and dispersions. (google.de)
  • The importance of knowledge of the science of particulate materials (often called particle or powder technology) to the process industries cannot be over-emphasized. (aiche.org)
  • When the user selects "run" from the menu, the device begins sampling, and within seconds col ects particles as large as tens of microns and as small as ten nanometers, providing representative samples over a wide range of particle sizes. (cdc.gov)
  • The capability of col ecting such a wide range of particle sizes in a very short time makes this device advantageous for research purposes or when doing air quality surveys at field sites. (cdc.gov)
  • Sampling time selection is aided by a table (Table 1) on the back of the ESPnano and is dependent on airborne particle concentration, with approximate number concentrations measured in particles per cubic centimeter (cc). (cdc.gov)
  • She said Lake Erie seems to hold the highest concentrations of plastics, probably because the particles float downstream from the upper lakes, according to the Duluth News Tribune. (cbc.ca)
  • Says Maynard, 'A trickle of epidemiological studies that began in the late 1980s and turned into a flood gate in the 1990s provided evidence that day to day variations in the already low concentrations of particles and other pollutants were still associated with effects on health. (org.in)
  • The participants wore devices that measured particle number concentrations in the air around them and recorded electrocardiograms (ECGs) of their heart activity as they went about their day-to-day lives. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • Next-generation lasers will have the power to create matter by capturing ghostly particles that, according to quantum mechanics, permeate seemingly empty space. (newscientist.com)
  • A microscopic virus-packed particle that's also expelled from an infected person's mouth when breathing, speaking, coughing or sneezing. (npr.org)
  • An open letter signed by 239 researchers addressed to the World Health Organization, published Monday in Clinical Infectious Diseases , calls for attention and guidance around a third route of transmission: tiny respiratory particles that float in the air and are called aerosols and that, the researchers state, could be responsible for infecting someone who comes along and breathes them in. (npr.org)
  • Through the respiratory route in which a person breathes in clouds of tiny virus particles that have accumulated and may be traveling on air currents. (npr.org)
  • The KATRIN experiment suggests that the tiny subatomic particles have masses a minuscule fraction of an electron's. (sciencenews.org)
  • The particles are tiny enough to slip through the screens at wastewater treatment plants and then start their journey across the Great Lakes. (cbc.ca)
  • Smaller particles tend to circulate longer because they can more easily pass through tiny blood vessels, for example. (scientificamerican.com)
  • Tiny particles secreted in response to head injury in the brains of mice could help explain how inflammation spreads and ultimately boosts the risk of developing dementia. (newscientist.com)
  • However, since aerosols comprise such a broad collection of particles with different properties, the overall effect is anything but simple. (nasa.gov)
  • I am feeling quite a level of excitement," said Oliver Buchmueller, a senior member of one of the two teams seeking the particle amid vast volumes of data gathered in Cern's Large Hadron Collider (LHC) this year. (news24.com)
  • Denoting by R the ratio of the number of α-particles scattered through an angle ø, to the number predicted by the inverse square law, it is shown in a recent paper 1 that, for scattering in helium, where K is the single parameter referred to, and , being the velocity of the incident α-particles. (nature.com)
  • In the device, the fluid jet captures the particles and brings them upwards to the separation zone at the velocity close to the transsonic speed. (innovations-report.com)
  • When applying the equation of motion, it is important that the acceleration of the particle be measured with respect to a reference frame that is either fixed or translates with a constant velocity. (slideshare.net)
  • Subfractions" of the inhalable fraction are the particles that can penetrate through the upper respiratory tract (head airways) and enter the thoracic airways (lower respiratory tract). (encyclopedia.com)
  • The ESPnano col ects representative samples of inhalable, respirable, and submicron particles for offline analyses. (cdc.gov)
  • You are starting to see a glimpse of this," Posner says, describing a 2015 paper by researchers who had mice swallow zinc-coated particles. (knowablemagazine.org)
  • The researchers beamed a stream of microwave particles into the box. (yahoo.com)
  • That water bottle you just purchased is likely contaminated with microplastic particles, according to a new investigation from researchers at the State University of New York at Fredonia and journalism organization Orb Media . (ajc.com)
  • Researchers already know that particle structure affects how well a drug is distributed throughout the body and how long it circulates in the bloodstream. (scientificamerican.com)
  • In a subsequent experiment, the researchers injected the particles into the bloodstream of live mice and monitored their distribution every two seconds for two hours using a laser-scanning microscope. (scientificamerican.com)
  • Researchers from the Helmholtz Zentrum München in Germany and the University of Rochester, NY, report their findings in the journal Particle and Fibre Toxicology . (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • WASHINGTON--( BUSINESS WIRE )--Researchers have developed a microscope that can chemically identify individual micron-sized particles. (businesswire.com)
  • The researchers plan to test their microscope on additional materials, including particles that are not spherical in shape. (businesswire.com)
  • Now, researchers at Fermilab in Batavia, Illinois, say they have found more evidence for this multiple-particle theory. (nationalgeographic.com)
  • Fine (smaller) particles, called PM 2.5 , are more dangerous because they can get into the deep parts of your lungs - or even into your blood. (cdc.gov)
  • Unlike a droplet, smaller aerosol particles can remain suspended in the air. (npr.org)
  • The strong force works by exchanging smaller particles called mesons back and forth between nucleons. (reference.com)
  • The team found that the least springy particles routinely got held up at the first point at which they encountered smaller vascular structures: the lungs. (scientificamerican.com)
  • However, interests have been extended to different applications and also to particles smaller than 23 nm. (nii.ac.jp)