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  • accelerator
  • A particle accelerator is a machine that uses electromagnetic fields to propel charged particles to nearly light speed and to contain them in well-defined beams. (wikipedia.org)
  • Smaller particle accelerators are used in a wide variety of applications, including particle therapy for oncological purposes, radioisotope production for medical diagnostics, ion implanters for manufacture of semiconductors, and accelerator mass spectrometers for measurements of rare isotopes such as radiocarbon. (wikipedia.org)
  • Rolf Widerøe, Gustav Ising, Leó Szilárd, Max Steenbeck, and Ernest Lawrence are considered pioneers of this field, conceiving and building the first operational linear particle accelerator, the betatron, and the cyclotron. (wikipedia.org)
  • AUSTIN, Texas Physicists at The University of Texas at Austin have built a tabletop particle accelerator that can generate energies and speeds previously reached only by major facilities that are hundreds of meters long and cost hundreds of millions of dollars to build. (freerepublic.com)
  • Such particles were first detected in cosmic ray interactions in the atmosphere in the late 1940s and were first produced using the Cosmotron particle accelerator at Brookhaven National Laboratory in the 1950s. (wikipedia.org)
  • cosmic rays
  • Thus, alpha particles may be loosely used as a term when referring to stellar helium nuclei reactions (for example the alpha processes), and even when they occur as components of cosmic rays. (wikipedia.org)
  • Higgs
  • Particle Fever follows a group of scientists through the process of discovery and the construction of the mega-machine that discovered the Higgs, the Large Hadron Collider. (kottke.org)
  • But efforts since the mid-1980s to find the particle in the US Tevatron collider and the LHC's predecessor at Cern, the LEP, and prove Higgs correct by smashing particles together and creating mini Big Bangs, have until now failed. (news24.com)
  • The Higgs particle was the missing linking brick in this architecture. (news24.com)
  • Characterisation
  • Lips, A., Hart, P.M. and Evans, I.D. (1992) Use of low angle laser light scattering in characterisation of non-spherical particles and swelling of microgel particles. (springer.com)
  • With state of the art capability and multidisciplinary expertise, we tailor the analysis of particles to the needs of our clients and provide consultancy on product development and characterisation. (npl.co.uk)
  • We support manufacturers and companies developing novel particles and nanoparticle-based products, enabling advanced characterisation and quality assurance. (npl.co.uk)
  • algorithms
  • As simulations with higher N are more computationally intensive, systems with large numbers of actual particles will often be approximated to a smaller number of particles, and simulation algorithms need to be optimized through various methods. (wikipedia.org)
  • V0 is still used on occasion to refer generally to neutral particles that may confuse the B-tagging algorithms in a modern particle detector, as is used in Section 7 of this ATLAS conference note. (wikipedia.org)
  • kinetic
  • The achievable kinetic energy for particles in these devices is determined by the accelerating voltage, which is limited by electrical breakdown. (wikipedia.org)
  • phenomena
  • The concept of particles is particularly useful when modelling nature , as the full treatment of many phenomena can be complex and also involve difficult computation. (wikipedia.org)
  • nanoparticles
  • The particles drove themselves into the animals' stomach walls , where they deposited therapeutic gold nanoparticles. (knowablemagazine.org)
  • Dynamic light Scattering offers a quick and easy way of determining the effective diameter of iron oxide nanoparticles and an autotitrator can help automate the process of detecting changes in particle size as a function of pH. (genengnews.com)
  • simulation
  • All interaction forces among themselves and with other objects in the simulation are applied to the points representing each particle, and the rotational motion of a point is undefined, and therefore ignored. (springer.com)
  • The reduced complexity in the dynamic equations allows for an increased number of particles being simulated without significantly imparing operation of the simulation engine. (springer.com)
  • simulate
  • These simplifications make particle systems an extremely attractive option to simulate systems requiring a large number of objects that can be approximated as a collection of point-mass objects. (springer.com)