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  • Oncogene
  • The oncogene neu is so-named because it was derived from a rodent glioblastoma cell line, which is a type of neural tumor, hence 'neu. (thefullwiki.org)
  • HER2 is co-localized, and thus most of the time co-amplified with the gene GRB7 , which is also a proto-oncogene (active in e.g. breast cancer, testicular germ cell tumor, gastric cancer, and esophageal cancer). (thefullwiki.org)
  • Receptor tyrosine-protein kinase erbB-2, also known as CD340 (cluster of differentiation 340), proto-oncogene Neu, Erbb2 (rodent), or ERBB2 (human), is a protein that in humans is encoded by the ERBB2 gene. (wikipedia.org)
  • HER2 is co-localised, and, most of the time, co-amplified with the gene GRB7, which is a proto-oncogene associated with breast, testicular germ cell, gastric, and eosophageal tumours. (wikipedia.org)
  • Skp2 behaves as an oncogene in cell systems and is an established protooncogene causally involved in the pathogenesis of lymphomas. (wikipedia.org)
  • 2001
  • Therefore, the timing of cell division and differentiation must be precisely coordinated with signals that specify morphogenesis, patterning and growth in a temporal, positional and cell type-specific manner (reviewed by Vidwans and Su, 2001 ). (biologists.org)
  • inhibit
  • small polypeptides that bind to and inhibit the catalytic activity of these kinases ( Sherr and Roberts, 1999 ). (biologists.org)
  • These Ras-mediated pathways lead to the increase in transcription of cyclin D1, and inhibit its proteolysis and export from the nucleus. (wikipedia.org)
  • p21cip1
  • The p27Kip1 gene has a DNA sequence similar to other members of the "Cip/Kip" family which include the p21Cip1/Waf1 and p57Kip2 genes. (wikipedia.org)
  • Cks1 in the Cdk-independent pathway involves the recognition of substrates p27Kip1 and p21cip1 by directly associating with E3 SCFSkp2 when stimulated by certainmitogenic signals, such as TGF-β. (wikipedia.org)
  • tumor
  • The tumor suppressor genes TSC1 and TSC2 have been implicated in the etiology of LAM, as mutations and loss of heterozygosity in the TSC genes have been detected in LAM cells (Figure 7). (atlasgeneticsoncology.org)
  • Another study demonstrated that AC extracts may be used as an adjuvant anti-tumor agent for human hepatoma cells (C3A and PLC/PRF/5), which are resistant to most other anti-tumor agents. (hindawi.com)
  • Cyclin E is a prognostic marker in breast cancer, its altered expression increased with the increasing stage and grade of the tumor. (wikipedia.org)
  • One of the best known substrates of cyclin D/Cdk4 and -6 is the retinoblastoma tumor suppressor protein (Rb). (wikipedia.org)
  • Cyclin-dependent kinase 4 inhibitor B also known as multiple tumor suppressor 2 (MTS-2) or p15INK4b is a protein that is encoded by the CDKN2B gene in humans. (wikipedia.org)
  • Overexpression
  • Overexpression of cyclin E accelerates the G1-to-S stage changeover, and increased appearance of multiple cyclin E-related protein continues to be reported in a number of individual malignancies. (complextraitgenomics.com)
  • Several mechanisms lead to the deregulated expression of cyclin E. In most cases, gene amplification causes the overexpression. (wikipedia.org)
  • Importantly, a recent research pointed out cyclin E overexpression is a mechanism of Trastuzumab resistance in HER2+ breast cancer patients. (wikipedia.org)
  • Cyclin E overexpression is implicated in carcinomas at various sites along the gastrointestinal tract. (wikipedia.org)
  • Cyclin E overexpression was found in 50-60% of gastric adenomas and adenocarcinomas. (wikipedia.org)
  • Impact of cyclin E overexpression on Smad3 activity in breast cancer cell lines. (wikipedia.org)
  • In eukaryotes, overexpression of translation initiation factor 4E (eIF4E) leads to an increased level of cyclin D protein and increased amount of cyclin D mRNA outside of the nucleus. (wikipedia.org)
  • Cyclin D1 overexpression is correlated with shorter cancer patient survival and increased metastasis. (wikipedia.org)
  • Amplification of the CCND1 gene is present in: non-small cell lung cancers (30-46%) head and neck squamous cell carcinomas (30-50%) pancreatic carcinomas (25%) bladder cancer (15%) pituitary adenomas (49-54%) breast carcinoma (13%) Cyclin D1 overexpression is strongly correlated to ER+ breast cancer and deregulation of cyclin D1 is associated with hormone therapy resistance in breast cancer. (wikipedia.org)
  • Overexpression of Cyclin D1b, an isoform, is also present in breast and prostate cancers. (wikipedia.org)
  • mediates
  • Endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) mediates the production of the vasodilator nitric oxide (NO). Pulmonary arterial cell cultures treated with fasudil showed a significant increase in eNOS mRNA levels in a dose dependent manner, and the half-life of eNOS mRNA increased 2-folds. (wikipedia.org)
  • In pancreatic beta cells FOXO1 mediates glucagon-like peptide-1 effects on pancreatic beta-cell mass. (wikipedia.org)
  • promotes
  • Objective- Thymidine phosphorylase (TP) reportedly promotes endothelial cell migration and induces heme oxygenase (HO)-1 expression. (ahajournals.org)
  • FOXO1 upregulate Fas ligand (FasL) transcriptionally that result in promotes apoptotic cell death. (wikipedia.org)
  • The cyclin D1-CDK4 complex promotes passage through the G1 phase by inhibiting the retinoblastoma protein (pRb). (wikipedia.org)
  • transcription
  • Cell fate determination by transcription factors. (springer.com)
  • Here, we show that transcription and secretion of ANGPTL4 in human T84 and HT29 colon adenocarcinoma cells is highly induced by physiological concentrations of short-chain fatty acids (SCFA). (biomedsearch.com)
  • In hepatic cells this transcription factor seems to increase the expression of PEPCK and glycogen-6-phosphatase (the same enzymes that are blocked via the metformin/AMPK/SHP pathway). (wikipedia.org)
  • The transcription and half- life of cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor p27KIP1 rises when FOXO1 is active. (wikipedia.org)
  • In general, extracellular growth factors which promote cell division reduce transcription and translation of p27Kip1. (wikipedia.org)
  • Cdk1
  • This protein kinase is highly similar to the gene products of S. cerevisiae cdc28, and S. pombe cdc2, also known as Cdk1 in humans. (wikipedia.org)
  • Cdk1 expression, which is crucial for M phase entry, is drastically diminished by Cks1 depletion, and that restoration of cdk1 reduces G(2)-M accumulation in Cks1-depleted cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • downstream
  • The failure to commit to adipogenesis is primarily due to active FOXO1 arresting the cell in G0/G1 through activation of yet unknown downstream targets, with a putative target being SOD2. (wikipedia.org)
  • synthesis
  • Short-chain fatty acids stimulate angiopoietin-like 4 synthesis in human colon adenocarcinoma cells by activating peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ. (biomedsearch.com)
  • We conclude that (i) SCFA potently stimulate ANGPTL4 synthesis in human colon adenocarcinoma cells and (ii) SCFA transactivate and bind to PPARγ. (biomedsearch.com)
  • The synthesis of cyclin D is initiated during G1 and drives the G1/S phase transition. (wikipedia.org)